From the Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits
by Wilson Popenoe

The Cherimoya
Annona cherimola Mill.

Pests and Diseases

"Deliciousness itself" is the phrase Mark Twain used to characterize the cherimoya. Sir Clements Markham quotes an even more flattering description :
"The pineapple, the mangosteen, and the cherimoya," says Dr. Seemann, "are considered the finest fruits in the world. I have tasted them in those localities in which they are supposed to attain their highest perfection, - the pineapple in Guayaquil, the mangosteen in the Indian Archipelago, and the cherimoya on the slopes of the Andes, - and if I were called upon to act the part of a Paris I would without hesitation assign the apple to the cherimoya. Its taste, indeed, surpasses that of every other fruit, and Haenke was quite right when he called it the masterpiece of Nature."

at the market
The cherimoya at its best

The cherimoya is essentially a dessert fruit, and as such it certainly has few equals. Although its native home is close to the equator, it is not strictly tropical as regards its requirements, being, in fact, a subtropical fruit, and attaining perfection only where the climate is cool and relatively dry. At home it grows on plateaux and in mountain valleys where proximity to the equator is offset by elevation, with the result that the climate is as cool as that of regions hundreds of miles to the north or south.


Commercial cultivation of the cherimoya has been undertaken in a few places. This fruit has not, however, achieved the commercial prominence which it merits, and which it seems destined some day to receive.

That it should be unknown in most northern markets, notwithstanding that it grows as readily in many parts of the tropics and subtropics as the avocado, can only be due to the inferiority of the varieties which have been disseminated, to tardiness in utilizing vegetative means of propagation, and to insufficient attention to the cultural requirements of the tree. The best seedling varieties must be brought to light, they must be propagated by budding or grafting, and a careful study made of pollination, pruning, fertilization of the soil, and other cultural details as yet imperfectly understood. There is no reason why, when this has been done, cherimoya culture should not become an important horticultural industry in many regions.

Experience in exporting the fruit from Madeira to London, and from Mexico to the United States, has shown that it can be shipped without difficulty. The demand for it in northern markets, once a regular supply is available, is certain to be keen.

The cherimoya is a small, erect or somewhat spreading tree, rarely growing to more than 25 feet high; on poor soils it may not reach more than 15 feet. The young growth is grayish and softly pubescent. The size of the leaves varies in different varieties; in some they are 4 to 6 inches long, in others 10 inches. In California a variety (originally from Tenerife, Canary Islands) with unusually large leaves has been listed by nurserymen under the name Annona macrocarpa. In form the leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or elliptic; obtuse or obtusely acuminate at the apex, rounded at the base. The upper surface is sparsely hairy, the lower velvety tomentose. The fragrant flowers are about an inch long, solitary or sometimes two or three together, on short nodding peduncles set in the axils of the leaves. The three exterior petals are oblong-linear in form, greenish outside and pale yellow or whitish within; the inner three are minute and scale-like, and ovate or triangular in outline. As in other species of Annona, the stamens and pistils are numerous, crowded together on the fleshy receptacle.

The fruit is of the kind known technically as a syncarpium. It is formed of numerous carpels fused with the fleshy receptacle. It may be heart-shaped, conical, oval, or somewhat irregular in form. In weight it ranges from a few ounces to five pounds. Sixteen-pound cherimoyas have been reported, but it is doubtful whether they ever existed in reality. The surface of the fruit in some varieties is smooth; in others it is covered with small conical protuberances. It is light green in color. The skin is very thin and delicate, making it necessary to handle the ripe fruit with care to avoid bruising it. The flesh is white, melting in texture, and moderately juicy. Numerous brown seeds, the size and shape of a bean, are embedded in it. The flavor is subacid, delicate, suggestive of the pineapple and the banana.


The cherimoya is sometimes confused with other species of Annona. W. E. Safford,1 who has studied the botany of this genus thoroughly, writes:
"For centuries the cherimoya has been cultivated and several distinct varieties have resulted. One of these has smooth fruit, devoid of protuberances, which has been confused with the inferior fruit of both Annona glabra and A. reticulata. The last two species, however, are easily distinguished by their leaves and flowers; Annona glabra, commonly known as the alligator apple or mangrove annona, having glossy laurel-like leaves and globose flowers with six ovate petals, and A. reticulata having long narrow glabrate leaves devoid of the velvety lining which characterizes those of the cherimoya."
1 In Bailey, Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture.

Annona Cherimola, Mill. is the Annona tripetala of Aiton; the plant which has been offered in California under the name A. suavissima is a horticultural form of A. Cherimola. (The orthography Anona Cherimolia was used until Safford showed that it is incorrect.)

The country of origin of the cherimoya remains somewhat in doubt. Alphonse DeCandolle, after weighing all the available evidence, said, "I consider it most probable that the species is indigenous in Ecuador, and perhaps in the neighboring part of Peru." The presence of the fruit in Mexico and Central America since an early day has led other botanists to assume that it might also be indigenous in the latter countries. Recently Safford has re-sifted the evidence and has reached the conclusion that "De-Candolle is in all probability correct in attributing it to the mountains of Ecuador and Peru. The common name which it bears, even in Mexico, is of Quichua origin . . . and terra-cotta vases modeled from cherimoya fruits have been dug up repeatedly from prehistoric graves in Peru."

The name by which this fruit is known in Spanish-speaking countries, cherimoya or chirimoya, is derived (as mentioned above, quoting Safford) from the Peruvian name chirimuya, signifying cold seeds. The English frequently spell the word cherimoyer. The name custard-apple is often used in the British colonies; its application is not confined, however, to this one species, but extends to other annonas. The French use the name cherimolier, or more frequently anone. The name cherimoya or one of its variants is sometimes applied to other species of Annona.

From its habitat in South America, the cherimoya early spread northward into Mexico; much later it passed into the West Indies, the southern part of South America, and across the seas to the islands near the African coast, to the Mediterranean region, and to India, Polynesia, and Africa.


At present it is naturalized in many parts of Mexico and Central America. Throughout this region it occurs most abundantly at elevations of 3000 to 6000 feet, occasionally ascending (in Guatemala) to 8000 feet. On the seacoast it is not successful as a fruit-tree, and is rarely grown. The regions which produce the finest cherimoyas in Mexico lie at elevations of 5000 to 6000 feet and are characterized by comparatively dry cool climates. Excellent cherimoyas are grown at Queretaro and in the vicinity of Guadalajara. The fruit is highly esteemed in the markets of Mexico City, where it sells at high prices. While not grown commercially on a scale comparable with the avocado, its culture in certain regions is important, and regular shipments are made to the principal markets of the country.

In Jamaica, where the cherimoya was introduced by Hinton East in 1785, there are now many trees in the mountainous parts of the island. The fruit is highly esteemed in the markets of Kingston. In Cuba it is almost unknown. There are a few trees in Oriente Province and perhaps elsewhere, but the markets of Habana are not familiar with it. It may be mentioned that Annona reticulata is often called cherimoya in Cuba, which has led some writers to assume wrongly that the true cherimoya is commonly cultivated in the island.

In Argentina, cherimoya culture is conducted commercially in several places, notably the Campo Santo district in the province of Salta. The fruit is shipped to Buenos Aires, where it is marketed at very profitable prices. In Brazil it is not commonly grown; in fact it is not known in most parts of the Republic.

In 1897 M. Grabham wrote a short article in the Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society on the cultivation of the cherimoya in Madeira. He asserted that "many of the estates on the warm southern slopes of the island, formerly covered with vineyards, have now been systematically planted with the cherimoya" and went on to state that "the fruits vary in weight between three and eight pounds, exceptionally large ones may reach 16 pounds and over." This article, which has been widely quoted, has been responsible for the current belief that cherimoya culture in Madeira is more extensive than in any other part of the world, and that exceptionally fine varieties have been developed.


Charles H. Gable, an American entomologist and horticulturist who worked in the island during 1913 and 1914, has dispelled these illusions. Gable writes:
"I found the cherimoya industry in Madeira very primitive indeed. No effort has been made to commercialize the growing of this fruit. Most of the trees are volunteers which have sprung up from dropped seeds, or else they have been planted for shade, with perhaps a vague notion that they might some day produce fruit. ... I do not know any one in Madeira (and I have been over the entire island) who has more than a dozen trees in bearing, and only a few have that many. Most of the important islanders have at least one tree. ... At least 95 per cent of all those on the island are seedlings. Occasionally old trees are top-worked by a method of cleft-grafting, but this is not highly successful. . . . There is no uniformity in the quality of the fruits. Every gradation is found between smooth-surfaced and very rough fruits. In those which resemble each other externally there may be great differences in quality, acidity, number of seeds, and other characteristics. I never got so I felt competent to pick out a good fruit in the market. . . . The rough type attains the greatest size. The largest specimen I was able to find weighed three and a half pounds. ... I hesitate to make an estimate, but I do not believe more than a thousand dozen fruits are exported from the island in a year. . . . The trees receive no intentional cultivation. Vegetables are often planted beneath them. A species of scale insect and the mealy bug infest many of them. . . . The trees do not seem to do well above 800 feet elevation. The ripening season is from the last of November until the first of February."

In the Canary Islands the cherimoya is not cultivated commercially, but it is grown on a limited scale. Georges V. Perez writes: "Ever since I can remember it has been cultivated in the gardens of Orotava as a delicious and perhaps unequalled tropical fruit."

In the Mediterranean region there are several localities in which it can be grown successfully. A. Robertson-Prosch-owsky, who has experimented with many tropical and subtropical plants at Nice, France, finds that the fruits, if caught by cold weather before they mature, do not ripen perfectly. If, however, the winter is mild and warm they may mature satisfactorily, even if very late. Robertson-Proschowsky believes that the cherimoya is well suited for cultivation in sheltered spots along the Cote d'Azur (French Riviera), and he recommends it as a fruit worthy of serious attention in that region.


It is cultivated on a limited scale in southern Spain and in Sicily. L. Trabut 1 of Algiers writes: "Lovers of the anona will find in the markets of Algiers, during November and December of each year, a few good fruits which are sold at 30 centimes to 1 franc each. These fruits come from gardens along the western coast, where there are some magnificent trees." He further says: "It seems evident that the moment has come to extend cherimoya culture. It is not more difficult than orange culture, and at present promises to be more remunerative." Trabut recommends that the tree be planted in Algeria on the coast only, since the climate of the interior is too cold.

The cherimoya has been planted in several parts of India but has not become a common fruit in that country. H. F. Macmillan says that it is "now cultivated in many up-country gardens in Ceylon." It was introduced into the latter island as late as 1880. In parts of Queensland, Australia, it is successfully grown.

In Hawaii it has become well established. Vaughan MacCaughey 1 says: "It was introduced into the Hawaiian Islands in very early times, and is now naturalized, particularly in certain parts of the Kona and Ka-u districts on the island of Hawaii." He adds that cherimoyas are rarely seen in the markets of Honolulu, but that trees are found in gardens throughout the city.
1 Bull. 24, Service Botanique, Algeria.

Nowhere in Florida is the cherimoya a common fruit. Trees in limited numbers have been planted in several parts of the state, notably in the Miami region. While they grow vigorously they do not fruit so freely, nor is the fruit of such good quality, as in many other countries. It is probable that the climate of south Florida is too tropical for this species.

As regards California, it is believed that the first cherimoyas planted in the state were brought from Mexico by R. B. Ord of Santa Barbara in 1871. A few years later Jacob Miller planted a small grove on his place at Hollywood, near Los Angeles. In the relatively short time since these first plantings were made, the cherimoya has become scattered throughout southern California, from Santa Barbara to San Diego. The climate and soil of the foothill regions seem to be peculiarly suited to it. A few commercial plantings have been made, notably at Hollywood, but since they are composed entirely of seedlings they have not proved remunerative. Had budded trees of desirable varieties been planted, the results would have been different. In the largest commercial planting, that of A. Z. Taft at Hollywood, one seedling, more productive than the remainder, produced one year about one-fourth the entire crop of the grove. Out of eighty trees comprised in the planting, only five produced more than a few fruits. By top-working the unproductive trees to a productive and otherwise desirable variety, they could have been made valuable.

For sheltered situations throughout the foothill tracts of southern California, cherimoya culture holds great promise.
1 Torreya, May, 1917.

As soon as budded or grafted trees of good varieties are available, many small orchards should be established quickly.
The cherimoya is commonly eaten fresh : rarely is it used in any way except as a dessert fruit. Alice R. Thompson, who has analyzed the fresh fruit in Hawaii, finds that it contains : Total solids, 33.81 per cent, ash 0.66 per cent, acids 0.06 per cent, protein 1.83 per cent, total sugars 18.41 per cent, fat 0.14 per cent, and fiber 4.29. It will be noted that the sugar-content is high, while that of acids is low. The percentage of protein is higher than in many other fruits.



The climatic requirements of the cherimoya have been indicated in the discussion of the regions in which it is cultivated. It is essentially a subtropical fruit, and in the tropics succeeds only at elevations sufficiently great to temper the heat. It thrives best in regions where the climate is relatively dry. In the southern part of Guatemala, where the annual rainfall is about 50 inches but where there is a long dry season, it is extensively grown and the fruit is of excellent quality; but in the northern part of the same country, where the rainfall is nearly 100 inches, distributed throughout the year, the tree cannot be grown successfully. In the highlands of Mexico it is best suited where the climate is dry, free from extremes both of heat and cold, and where abundant water is available for irrigating. The climate of southern California, except in sections subject to severe frosts, seems almost ideal for it. In many places frost is the limiting factor, for the cherimoya, while the hardiest of its genus, does not endure temperatures lower than 26° or 27° above zero without serious injury. Young plants will, of course, be hurt by mild frosts which mature trees would ignore; in fact, temperatures lower than 29° or 30° are likely to injure them.

Like other annonas, the cherimoya prefers a rich loamy soil. It can be grown, however, on soils of many different types.
In California it has done well on heavy clay (almost adobe), while in Florida it makes satisfactory growth on shallow sandy soils. H. F. Schultz considers the ideal soil to be a fairly rich, loose sandy loam, underlaid with gravel at a depth of two to three feet. He says: "Some of the best Campo Santo and Betania (Argentina) groves are located on such land, which is furthermore characterized by a liberal outcropping of scattered rocks." Carlos Werckle states that the tree does well in Costa Rica on "stony cliffs." He reports that it is more productive under these conditions than when grown on richer soil, and himself considers it partial to mountain slopes on which there is much limestone rock.

Experience in California has shown that the cherimoya requires cultural treatment similar to that given the citrus fruits. Budded trees should be planted in orchard form about 20 to 24 feet apart; seedlings about 30 feet apart, since they grow to larger size. Irrigations, followed by thorough cultivation of the soil, are given at intervals of two weeks to one month. While the trees are young, more frequent irrigations are necessary. In Argentina, according to H. F. Schultz, it is the custom to irrigate the trees at intervals of six to twelve days. In Mexico two weeks is considered the proper interval.

In California, stable manure has been used for young trees with excellent results, and occasionally for bearing groves. Little attention has been devoted to the subject; hence it is not possible to give specific directions for the use of fertilizers. A writer in the Queensland Agricultural Journal recommends that each tree be given annually 1 to 3 pounds of superphosphate, 2 to 6 pounds of meat-works manure with blood, and 1 to 2 pounds of sulfate of potash.

The pruning of cherimoyas has received little attention as yet in the United States. In Argentina it is considered that trees which are kept low and compact are both more precocious and longer lived than those which are tall and open in habit.
In Guatemala the most productive trees are usually those which have been cut back heavily. It is possible that fruitful-ness can be increased by severe pruning. The matter deserves careful investigation. The tree being semi-deciduous, pruning should be done after the leaves have dropped and before the new foliage makes its appearance.



In many regions seed-propagation is the only method which has been used with this plant. In the United States, in Madeira, in Algeria, and in the Philippines, cherimoyas have been grafted and budded successfully; one or the other of these methods should be employed to perpetuate choice varieties.

If kept dry the seeds will retain their viability several years. Given warm weather or planted under glass, they will germinate in a few weeks. Under glass they may be sown at any time of the year; if in open ground, they should be planted only in the warm season. Seeds should be sown in flats of light porous soil containing an abundance of humus, and should be covered to a depth of not more than 3/4 inch. When the young plants are three or four inches high, they may be transferred into three-inch pots. Good drainage must be provided, and they should not be watered too copiously. When eight inches high they may be shifted into larger pots, or set out in the open ground. In the latter case, they must have careful attention, and, preferably, shade, until they have become well established.

For stock-plants on which to bud or graft the cherimoya, several species of Annona have been employed. A. reticulata, A. glabra, and A. squamosa are all recommended by P. J. Wester. In Florida A. squamosa has proved to be a good stock when a dwarf tree is desired; A. glabra tends to outgrow the cion. In California, seedling cherimoyas as stock-plants have given the best results.

Shield-budding has worked very satisfactorily in the United States. In several other regions horticulturists have found grafting more successful. Budding is best done at the beginning of the growing season, when the sap is flowing freely. Stock-plants should be 3/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter. Well-matured budwood from which the leaves have dropped is preferable, and it should be gray, not green, in color. The buds should be cut l 1/2 inches in length, and should be inserted exactly as in budding avocados or mangos. Waxed tape, raffia, and soft cotton string have proved satisfactory for tying. Three or four weeks after insertion of bud, the wrapping should be loosened and the stock lopped at a point 5 or 6 inches above the bud. Wrapping should not be removed entirely until the bud has made a growth of several inches.
For grafting, two-year-old seedlings are to be preferred (for budding they may be somewhat younger). The cleft-graft is the method usually employed. The cion should be well-matured wood from which the leaves have dropped. C. H. Gable wrote from Madeira in 1914 : "I have been surprised to find how easily the annona is grafted. My first few efforts were not very successful, but later I grafted them in all sizes from seedlings smaller than a lead pencil to old trees, and more than 90% have grown beautifully." Gable found it advisable after making the graft to paint the cion and the top of the stock (around the cleft) with melted wax, to prevent evaporation.


Old seedling trees can be top-worked without difficulty. For this purpose cleft-grafting is used more commonly than any other method.

The pollination of the cherimoya has been investigated in Florida by P. J. Wester, and in Madeira by C. H. Gable. It has been thought that the scanty productiveness of many trees might be due to insufficient pollination, and the investigations tend to confirm this belief. Gable reports that normally in Madeira not more than 5 per cent of the flowers produced develop into fruits. By hand-pollinating them, however, he was able to obtain thirty-six fruits from forty-five flowers.
After carrying on pollination experiments in Florida during several years, P. J. Wester 1 wrote: "The investigations indicate that the flowers of the cherimoya, the sugar-apple, the custard-apple and the pond-apple are proterogynous and entomophilous, though the pollinating agent of the last-named species has not been detected." A proterogynous plant, it may be remarked, is one in which the pistils are receptive before the anthers have developed ripe pollen, cross-pollination being therefore necessary, and some outside agency being required to effect it. In the case of the annonas the work is done by insects; hence the plants are termed entomophilous.

The pollination of the closely allied Asimina triloba is thus described by Delpino: 2 "The stamens project in the center of the pendulous protogynous (proterogynous) flower as a hemispherical mass, from the middle of which a few styles with their stigmas project. In the first (female) stage of anthesis the three inner petals lie so close to the stamens that insect visitors (flies) cannot suck the nectar secreted at the bases of the former without touching the already mature stigmas. In the second (male) stage the stigmas have dried up and the inner petals have raised themselves, so that the anthers, - now covered with pollen, - are touched by insects on their way to the nectar. Cross-pollination of the younger flowers is therefore effected by transference from the older ones.,, Wester concluded that one cause of the unproductiveness of the cherimoya in Florida was the scarcity of pollinating insects. Even under the same conditions of environment, however, there are marked differences in productiveness among seedling trees. The subject deserves further investigation. Productive varieties especially should be studied, to determine whether or not they differ in any way from the typical less fecund form in manner of pollination.
1 Bull. of the Torrey Bot. Club, 37, 1910.
2 Paul Knuth, Handbook of Flower Pollination.



Seedling cherimoyas, when grown under favorable cultural conditions, begin to bear the third or fourth year after planting. Most of them, even at fifteen or twenty years of age, do not produce annually more than a dozen good fruits. Occasional trees are more satisfactory in this respect, and it is such trees which should be propagated by budding. The writer has observed one small tree in Guatemala which bore eighty-five fruits in a single season, and C. H. Gable found a tree in Madeira which bore three hundred.

In California the main season for cherimoyas is spring, usually March and April; but sometimes a few fruits mature in late autumn. In Argentina the season is February to July. Felix Foex states that there are ripe cherimoyas in Mexico throughout the year, owing to the presence of trees at different elevations. From personal observation the writer ventures to doubt whether this all-year season is a fact; in any event, they are not abundant during the entire year. In Madeira the fruit begins to ripen about the end of November and continues in season until early in February.

When fully mature or "tree-ripe," the fruits are picked and laid away to soften. If, however, they are to be shipped to distant markets they are packed as soon as removed from the tree, and dispatched at once so that they will reach their destination before they have become soft. When fully mature and ready to pick, they usually have a yellowish tinge. In Mexico they are packed for shipment in baskets, using hay or straw as a cushion. According to H. F. Schultz, the same method is used in Argentina, where twelve to fifteen dozen fruits are packed in a basket. Good ventilation should be insured, and the fruits should not be wrapped in paper. Cherimoyas exported from Madeira to London net the growers $1.00 to $1.20 a dozen. In Argentina the average price to growers is $2.20 a dozen.


Pests and Diseases

Although the cherimoya has up to the present suffered little from the attacks of insect and other pests in California and Florida, it is far from being exempt from them in regions where it has been grown extensively for a long period. In Hawaii, Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockerell is a serious enemy. Several other coccids have also been reported on the cherimoya, Aulacaspis miranda Cockerell and Ceropute yuccoe Coquillet are two which are mentioned from Mexico. Certain of the fruit-flies (Trypetidse) are known to attack the fruits of the cherimoya. Throughout the warmer parts of America there are small chalcid flies, related to the wheat-joint worm and the grape-seed chalcid, which infest the seeds of annonaceous fruits. Bephrata cubensis Ashm. has been reported as attacking the cherimoya in Cuba. These insects are serious pests. In Argentina the attacks of borers are said to reduce the life of the average tree by half, making it thirty in place of sixty years.


While there are important differences among seedling cherimoyas, affecting not only the productiveness and foliage of the tree but also the size, form, character of surface, color, quality, and number of seeds of the fruit, few named varieties have as yet been propagated. In the Pomona College Journal of Economic Botany (May, 1912) the author has described two, viz., Mammillaris and Golden Russet, which have been propagated in California on a limited scale. Neither of these, however, merits extensive cultivation; hence the descriptions will not be included in this work. It seems desirable, however, to repeat the botanical classification of seedling cherimoyas published by W. E. Safford in the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. This comprises the following five forms :

Finger-printed (botanically known as forma impressa).- Called in Costa Rica anona de dedos pintados. The fruit is conoid or subglobose in shape, and has a smooth surface covered with U-shaped areoles resembling finger-prints in wax. Many seedlings of this type are of good quality, and contain few seeds.

Smooth (forma loevis).- Called chirimoya lisa in South America and anon in Mexico City. This form is often mistaken for Annona glabra and A. reticulata because of the general appearance of the fruit and on account of the name anon, which is also applied to A. reticulata. One of the finest types of cherimoya.

Fig. 24. Seedling cherimoyas, showing some of the common types. (X 1/5)
Fig. 24. Seedling cherimoyas, showing some of the common types. (X 1/5)

Tuberculate (forma tuberculata). - One of the commonest forms. The fruit is heart-shaped and has wart-like tubercles near the apex of each areole. The Golden Russet variety belongs to this group.

Mammillate (forma mamillata). - Called in South America chirimoya de tetillas. Said to be common in the Nilgiri hills in southern India, and to be one of the best forms grown in Madeira.

Umbonate (forma umbonata). - Called chirimoya de puas and anona picuda in Latin America. The skin is thick, the pulp more acid than in other forms, and the seeds more numerous. The fruit is oblong-conical, with the base somewhat umbilicate and the surface studded with protuberances, each of which corresponds to a component carpel.

Hybrids between the cherimoya and the sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) have been produced in Florida by P. J. Wester and Edward Simmonds. The aim has been to develop a fruit having the delicious flavor of the cherimoya, yet adapted to strictly tropical conditions. Some of the hybrids have proved to be very good fruits, and further work along this line is greatly to be desired. Wester calls this new fruit atemoya. Hybrids between it and the sugar-apple, the bullock's-heart, and the pond-apple (all of which see below) have been obtained by him in the Philippines.

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Popenoe, Wilson. "The Cherimoya". Manual of Tropical and Subtropical fruits. 1920. Web. 28 Dec. 2014.

Published 28 Dec. 2014 LR. Updated 2 Jan. 2016 LR
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