|Monstera, Ceriman - Monstera deliciosa Liebm.|
Underside of leaf
New leaf emerging
Monstera deliciosa (habit). Maui, Lowes Garden Center Kahului
Monstera deliciosa (stems). Maui, Makawao, Hawaii
Monstera deliciosa (habit). Maui, Makawao, Hawaii
Monster fruit, Monsterio Delicio, Monstereo, Swiss Cheese Plant or Mexican Breadfruit
Monstera deliciosa (Swiss-cheese plant) Flower. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii
Flower and buds of Monstera deliciosa, in the grounds of Old Government House, Auckland
Waxy, white spather that later drops
Monstera deliciosa, cultivated, Townsville - close-up of fresh flower, with tiny flies and (out of focus at lower right) a native bee (Trigona sp. or similar) attracted to it. The background of the photo is the flower's hood.
Self peeling bananas, taste like pineapples. Funchal Public Market
Monstera deliciosa (Swiss-cheese plant). Fruit on display. Maui County Fair Kahului
Monstera deliciosa: ripen fruit with inside details
Adult lubber grasshopper in light color phase
Monstera deliciosa Liebm.
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In Mexico and other Latin American countries it is known as pinanona, or pina anona, but in Venezuela it is called ojul or huracan; in Colombia, hojadillo; in Guatemala, harpon or arpon comun. In Guadeloupe it is caroal, liane percee, or liane franche; in Martinique, siguine couleurre; in French Guiana, arum du pays or arum troud. In Brazil it is catalogued by a leading nursery as ananas japonez (Japanese pineapple). 1 English: monstera, ceriman, windowleaf, cut-leaf philodendron, swiss-cheese plant, split-leaf philodendron 2
Monstera borsigiana Engl.; M. deliciosa var. borsigiana (Engl.) Engl. & K. Krause; M. deliciosa var. sierrana G.S. Bunting; M. lennea K.Koch; M. tacanaensis Matuda; P. anatomicum Kunth 5
Monstera lechleriana, M. friedrichsthalii, M. dissecta, and M. pertusa (all ornamental houseplants). Numerous Philodendron species including the common landscape plant P. bipinnatifidum
Native to wet forests of southern Mexico, Guatemala and parts of Costa Rica and Panama 2
USDA hardiness zones
Container or above-ground planter; culinary 4
May exceed 70 ft (21 m) in length if left unpruned
Usually one very thick stem (Fig. 3) 4
Can become very large if they are not cut back to contain their size 2
Alternate, simple, lobed, ovate; 3-4 ft high (0.9–1.2 m), evergreen, oblong holes (Fig. 6), deeply notched margins (Fig. 5)
Tiny, perfect: both male and female
Compound, elongated, 10"+, rind has tile like hexagonal scales, pulp off-white, juicy, sweet
USDA Nutrient Content
June through October; the fruit can take a year or longer to ripen 4
Light shade (filtered sunlight) 2
Sligntly alkaline; clay; sand; acidic; loam 4
Not tolerant of flooded or excessively wet soil conditions 2
Soil salt tolerance
Leaves are damaged or killed at 30 to 32°F (-1.0 to 0°C);stems at 26 to 28°F (-2 to -3°C) 2
20 or more ft (6.1 m or more) away from trees and other plants and electrical poles 2
Long, aerial, tentacle-like roots taking root when they touch the ground 2
Invasive potential *
Not known to be invasive
Not usually affected by pests
All parts of the plant are poisonous; unripe fruit contains irritating calcium oxalate crystals
Monstera Growing in the Florida Landscape from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages
Monstera Deliciosa from the University of Florida pdf
Cerinam from Julia Morton's Book Fruits of Warm Climates
Cultural Practices from the University of Florida
Ceriman, Delicious Monster from Green Deane of Eat the Weeds and Other Things Too
Monstera is indigenous to the hot, humid, tropical forests of Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama. 2
Monstera is a fast growing broadleaf vine with a cylindrical, thick stem 2 to 4 inches (5–10 cm) in diameter that may grow along the ground or, if allowed, will climb onto trees and structures. The vine may exceed 70 ft (21 m) in length if left unpruned. The vine stem is covered with leaf scars from previous leaves and from it develop numerous, long, cord-like aerial roots. Left uncontrolled, the vine may be somewhat invasive i.e., take over the landscape or climb trees. 2
Fig. 9. Philodendron species can be found in many diverse habitats in the tropical Americas and the West Indies
Fig. 10. Monstera deliciosa (Swiss-cheese plant). Habit and water feature. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui, Hawaii
The bloom of Split-Leaf Philodendron is a 12-inch-long, white, calla-like spadix and it is sometimes followed by the unusual, edible fruit which tastes much like a cross of pineapple and banana. The fruit can take a year or longer to ripen, but only under the exacting conditions of proper warmth, high humidity, and bright light typical of USDA hardiness zone 10. 4
Flowering and fruiting overlap because it requires 12 to 14 months from the opening of the inflorescence to the maturity of the fruit. Therefore, there are often unopened inflorescences, immature fruits and ripening fruits together on the same plant. The current year's crop is ripening through summer and fall while the following year's crop is forming beside it. 1
The fruit is called a spadix and is made up of numerous cohering berries. At first the spadix is sheltered by a waxy, white, spathe (bract) (Fig. 13) that later drops off. The compound fruit is cylindrical, green, 8 to 14 inches (20-36 cm) long and 2 to 3 1-2 inches (5-9 cm) in diameter. The peel is thick, hard, and made up of hexagonal plates (scales) that cover individual segments of ivory colored, juicy, flavorful pulp. Among the fruit segments are small, black particles which are the remnants of flowers. Generally, there are no seeds, although sometimes small, pale-green seeds are produced. 2
The fruit or Ceriman will grow even without pollination, about 25 cm (10) long. Immature fruit (green) contains calcium oxalate which is toxic. The fruit should not be consumed before maturity (yellow).
Fig. 21. Different stages of fruiting
Fig. 22. Note the dead cataphyll at the leaf petiole, plus the dead spathe around one spadix
Fig. 23. Fruiting habit
Fig. 24. Monstera deliciosa. We have a plant in our new house. Didn't know if it was edible at first. Yum.
Fig. 25. Monstera deliciosa: ripen fruits with inside details
Few named monstera varieties exist. There are a number of varieties with variegated leaves including ‘Variegata’, ‘Albovariegata’, and ‘Marmorata’; however, the quality of their fruit is not known and they may be hard to find in the nursery trade in Florida. Caution: these varieties may not have edible fruit. 2
Mature fruit ready to harvest turn from green to a lighter green and the tile-like segments at the base of the fruit begin to separate slightly, making it appear somewhat bulged. Fruit may then be cut from the plant, leaving 1 inch or more of the stem. To ripen the fruit, it keep it at room temperature (78-82°F; 26-28°F) for 5 to 6 days during which time it will ripen from the base toward the apex (top). The pulp should only be eaten from that portion of the fruit that easily falls off the core (stem). This is because immature sections of the fruit contain oxalic acid crystals that cause severe discomfort when swallowed. 2
Propagation is by means of stem cuttings, which may be simply set in beds or pots in the ground where the vine is intended to grow. Suckers or offshoots, with or without roots, can be separated from parent plants and transplanted successfully. Plants generated from cuttings may come into bearing in 4 to 6 years, whereas suckers begin fruit production in 2 to 4 years. 2
Fig. 26. Monstera deliciosa (Windowleaf), stem cutting with fresh sprout
Fig. 27. New growth on small stem cutting
Dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times as deep as the container the monstera vine came in. Making a large hole loosens the soil next to the new vine, making it easy for the roots to expand into the adjacent soil. It is not necessary to apply fertilizer, topsoil, or compost to the hole. 2
Monstera fertilizer requirements do not appear to be high. After planting, when new growth begins, apply ¼ lb (113 g) of a complete dry fertilizer mix with 20 to 30% of the nitrogen from organic sources. Micronutrient applications should be made 2 to 3 times per year, generally during the growing season. Iron should be applied in a chelated formulation. 2
Although monstera vines are moderately drought tolerant, especially when grown in the shade, periodic watering during dry periods will result in better growth and larger fruit. 2
When grown indoors, the plants are subject to infestation by scale insects, mites and mealybugs. Outdoors, they are usually pest-free. However, in dry seasons in Florida, the lubber grasshopper (Romalea microptera) has rapidly consumed entire leaves, leaving only the base of the midrib and the petiole. In India, wire cages are placed around developing fruits to protect them from rats, squirrels, monkeys and other creatures.
Fig. 29. Adult lubber grasshopper in intermediate color phase
Fig. 39. Adult lubber grasshopper in dark color phase
Eastern Lubber Grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Beauvois) from the University of Florida pdf 7 pages
The following diseases have been recorded in Florida: leaf spot caused by Leptosphaeria sp., Macrophoma philodendri, Phytophthora sp., and Pseudomonas cichorri; anthracnose from Glomerella cingulata; bacterial soft rot from infection by Erwinia carotovora; and root rot caused by Pythium splendens and Rhizoctonia solani.
The oxalic acid, and possibly other unidentified principles, in the unripe fruit, the floral remnants of the ripe fruit, and all parts of the plant, cause oral and skin irritation. Some sensitive individuals claim that even the ripe fruit irritates the throat. It would be well to avoid eating the ceriman in quantity until it is determined that there are no undesirable reactions. Some individuals have experienced urticaria and anaphylaxis after eating ceriman. Some children and adults have reported diarrhea and intestinal gas after consuming the flesh or products made from it. 1
Fully ripe pulp is like a blend of pineapple and banana. It may be served as dessert with a little light cream, or may be added to fruit cups, salads or ice cream. 1
In general, monstera is eaten as a fresh fruit, although the pulp may be used as an ingredient in desserts. The fruit contains large amounts of oxalic acid, and it is not recommended to eat large quantities of this fruit at any one time. 2
Medicinal Uses **
In Mexico, a leaf or root infusion is taken daily to relieve arthritis. A preparation of the root is employed in Martinique as a remedy for snakebite. 1
The aerial roots have been used as ropes in Peru. In Mexico, they are fashioned into coarse, strong baskets. 1
The Monster in Your Garden by G. Joyner from the Tropical Fruit News of the Miami Tropical Fruit Council
List of Growers and Vendors
1 Morton, J. "Ceriman". hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates, p. 15-17. 1987. Web. 11 Jan. 2015.
2 Crane, Jonathan H. and Balerdi, Carlos F.. "Monstera Growing in the Florida Home Landscape." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is HS1071, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date Feb. 2005. Revised Nov. 2016. Web. 29 Dec. 2016.
3 Deane, Green . "Ceriman, Delicious Monster". eattheweeds.com. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
Gilman, Edward F. "Monstera deliciosa." edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
This document is Fact Sheet FPS-414, one of a series of the
Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension
Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida. Publication Oct. 1999. (Archived).
Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 1 Maguire, Ian. Monstera deliciosa. From the Tropical Fruit Photography Picture Archive. trec.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 4,5 Kwan. Monstera deliciosa. 2008. natureloveyou.sg. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
6,8 Starr, Forest and Kim.
Monstera deliciosa (habit). 2008. Makawao,
Maui, Hawaii. starrenvironmental.com.
BY-SA 3.0). Web. 2 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 10 Starr, Forest and Kim. Monstera deliciosa (Swiss-cheese plant) Habit and water feature. 2012. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui. starrenvironmental.com. Under (CC BY-SA 3.0). Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 11,20 Carr, Gerald,D. Monstera deliciosa, Areacea. N.d. University of Hawaii, Botany Department, Manoa Campus Plants. botany.hawaii.edu. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 12 Hagens, Wouter. Monster fruit, Monsterio Delicio, Monstereo, Swiss Cheese Plant or Mexican Breadfruit. 2001. commons.wikimedia.org. Public domain. Web. 2 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 15 St-John, H. Monstera deliciosa, Areacea. N.d. University of Hawaii, Botany Department, Manoa Campus Plants. botany.hawaii.edu. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.
Fig. 16 Tattersall, Malcolm. Monstera deliciosa, cultivated, Townsville - close-up of fresh flower, with tiny flies and (out of focus at lower right) a native bee (Trigona sp. or similar) attracted to it. The background of the photo is the flower's hood. 2010. flickr.com. Under (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Web. 3 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 21 Jackson, Karen. "Monstera deliciosa Series." 2013. growables.org. JPG file.
Fig. 26,27 Kraft, Sönke aka zu Linden, Arnulf. Monstera deliciosa (Windowleaf), stem cutting with fresh sprout. 2009. commons.wikimedia.org. Under GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2, (CC BY-SA 3.0), (CC BY-SA 2.5), (CC BY-SA 1.0). Web. 2 Jan. 2017.
Fig. 28,29,30 Capinera, John. Eastern lubber grasshopper. N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.* UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.
Published 12 Feb. 2015 LR. Last update 3 Jan. 2017 LR