|Mango Diseases and Disorders|
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Anthracnose on fruit, circular and 'tear stain' lesions
Anthracnose on very young fruit
Symptoms on stem and panicle
Powdery mildew symptoms
Leaf spots, blight, curling and distortion
Alga Leaf Spot caused by Cephaleuros virescens
Gray leaf spot (fungus, Pestalotiopsis mangiferae = Pestalotia mangiferae)
Mango decline, stem gummosis
Over-irrigation of mango commonly results in basal stem rot in Hawaii. Move irrigation emitters progressively farther from stems over time.
control for mango tress in the home landscape is usually not warranted
or should not be intensive. The easiest method for avoiding disease
problems is to grow anthracnose-resistant varieties, plant trees in
full sun where the flowers, leaves, and fruit dry off quickly after
rainfall, not to apply irrigation water to the foliage, flowers, and
fruit, and to monitor the tree for disease problems during the
flowering and fruiting season.1
The two major disease problems for mango trees in the home landscape are powdery mildew and anthracnose. Both these fungal pathogens attack newly emerging panicles, flowers, and young fruit. One to two early spring applications of sulfur and copper timed to begin when the panicle is 1/2 full size and then 10 to 21 days later will greatly improve the chances for fruit set and production. Usually, protecting the panicles of flowers during development and fruit set results in good fruit production in the home landscape. 1
Homeowners should contact the University of Florida County Cooperative Extension Service for recommended control recommendations for the diseases discussed below.
Anthracnose (Fig. 1,2)
Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Anthracnose can occur on all parts of the mango tree. Leaf infection starts as small, dark, angular to irregular spots. These often coalesce to form large necrotic areas, which may crack. Infections on the flower panicle appear as small brown or black spots which enlarge
and often coalesce to cause the death of flowers. Small fruit are rapidly invaded by the fungus once they become infected. On nearly mature or ripe fruit, black spots coalesce to cover large areas, which may be sunken. Surface "tear staining," a phenomenon caused by spores falling from an inoculum source above the fruit, may be apparent. 2
Fig. 3,4,5,6. Anthracnose on fruit circular lesions
Fig. 7. On mature fruits “tear stain” lesions
Fig. 8. Anthracnose “tear stain” lesions cracking
Fig. 9,10,11. Anthracnose symptoms on leaves
Fig. 12,13,14. Symptoms on inflorescence and panicles
Fig. 15. Symptoms on stem
Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) from the University of Hawaii CTAHR pdf 9 pages
Anthracnose of mango: Management of the most important pre‐ and post‐harvest disease from the University of Florida TREC pdf 11 pages
Mango Anthracnose Disease: Present Status and Future Research Priorities from the Plant Pathology Journal pdf 9 pages
Powdery Mildew (Fig. 17)
Caused by the fungus Oidium mangiferae
In severe attacks, the entire blossom panicle may be involved and fruit fail to set. Infected flowers, flower stalks, and young fruit become coated with the whitish powdery growth of the pathogen and the flowers and young infected fruits are similarly coated with the white fungal growth. Younger leaves may become distorted. On older leaves and fruit, infected tissue has a purplish-brown cast, as the white growth weathers away. The infection on fruit may also appear as an irregular blotch. Affected fruit may turn brown and fall off the tree. The disease is a particular problem in cool dry years. 2
Fig. 18. Fungal mycelium and spores on leaf surface
Fig. 19,20,21. Mildew on flowers, panicles and fruit
Mango Powdery Mildew from the University of Hawaii CTAHR pdf 6 pages
Caused by Elsinoe mangiferae
Scab is a pathogen of young leaves and colonization is favored in cool, wet conditions. Signs of scab on leaves are small spots on the underside of leaves, which turn from dark-brown to gray. Leaves may become distorted and twisted if the infestation is heavy. Gray lesions on twigs may also be apparent. Fruit develops irregular, gray lesions which enlarge as it matures. The lesion centers become corky and cracked, and often exhibit the velvety growth of the fungus in moist weather. 2
Alga Leaf Spot (Fig. 22)
Caused by Cephaleuros virescens
This alga commences colonization late in the summer and progresses through the winter months. Initially hard to visualize, green, yellow-green, or rust colored leaf spots up to 5 mm in size become raised and roughly circular. Stems may develop cankers where infestation is high. The alga eventually produces rust-colored "spores." - These will give rise to more algae if not controlled with copper sprays. 2
Fig. 23,24. Green alga (Cephaleuros virescens) Kunze on citrus
Cephaleuros Species, the Plant-Parasitic Green Algae from the University of Hawaii CTAHR pdf 6 pages
Leaf Spot (Fig. 25)
Caused by Pestalotiopsis mangiferae and Phyllosticta anacardeacearum
Both of these fungi cause leaf spot in mango, but with slightly different appearances. P. mangiferae spots (Fig. 25) are gray and irregularly shaped. They may range from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. P. anacardeacearum leaf spots are bleached to white in color and can be numerous on leaves. Both fungi form black dot-like reproductive structures in the lesion centers. 2
Caused by Verticillium alboa-trum
This soil-borne fungus is more prevalent in trees planted in historic areas of solanaceous crop production. The fungus invades water-conducting structures in the roots, causing a persistent wilt, which is often one-sided on the tree. Brown or gray streaks may be observed in the vascular tissue once the bark is peeled away. Leaves may die for lack of water but remain attached for some time. Trees also may flush out with new shoots several months after collapse, apparently recovered from the infection. 2
Mango Decline (Fig. 26)
(presumably caused by endophytic fungus or fungi)
Research to date suggests that mango decline is caused by deficiencies of manganese and iron. These deficiencies may predispose trees to infection by fungal pathogens (Botryosphaeria ribis and Physalospora sp.), which attack shoots, or by root feeding nematodes (Hemicriconemoides mangiferae). Leaf symptoms include interveinal chlorosis, stunting, terminal and marginal necrosis, and retention of dead leaves that gradually drop. Dieback of young stems and limbs is common and even tree death may occur. Increased applications of iron, manganese, and zinc micronutrients have been observed to reduce or ameliorate this
Fig. 27,28. Stem gummosis
Fig. 29. Internal stem necrosis
Fig. 30. Fruit splitting and bleeding
Fig. 31. Internal fruit dry rot
Fig. 32. Fruit mummification
Fig. 33,34. Trunk splitting
A reexamination of Mango Decline in Florida from the University of Florida TREC pdf 5 pages
Mineral Treatment for Mango Decline from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
This is a fruit problem of unknown cause, which is also called jelly seed and soft nose. Generally, it is less of a problem on the calcareous (limestone) soils found in south Miami-Dade County and more common on acid sandy soils with low calcium content. The degree of severity may vary from one season to another. Several symptoms may appear including (1) a softening (breakdown) and water soaking of the fruit flesh at the distal end while the flesh around the shoulders remains unripe, (2) an open cavity in the pulp at the stem end, (3) over-ripe flesh next to the seed surrounded by relatively firm flesh, or (4) areas of varying size in the flesh appearing spongy with a grayish-black color. This disorder is aggravated by over fertilization with nitrogen. If fruit have this problem, reduce the rate of nitrogen. In sandy and low- pH soils, increased calcium fertilization may help alleviate this problem. Fruits harvested mature-green are less affected than those allowed to ripen on the tree. 1
Internal Breakdown in Mango Fruit from the University of Florida TREC pdf 12 pages
Caused by Fusarium mangiferae Britz
Symptoms include the drastic shortening of panicles, giving them a clustered appearance and/or a shortening of shoot internodes. Affected panicles do not set fruit and eventually dry up and turn black. This disorder is not common in Florida,but homeowners should watch for it and immediately prune off affected flower panicles and shoots and destroy them. 1
Mango Malformation Disease from the Queensland, Australia, Primary Industries and
Dooryard Disease Control for Mangos in Florida from the Miami-Dade County Extension pdf
Mango Rachis blight from the Florida of Agriculture and Consumer Services pdf
Mango Diseases and Their Control from the University of Hawaii CTAHR pdf 5 pages
1 Crane, Johathan H., Balerdi, Carlos F. and Maquire, Ian. "Mangos Growing in the Florida Home Landscape." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication date Apr. 1994. Reviewed July 2013. Web. 19 June 2014.
2 Mossler, Mark A. and Crane, Jonathan. "Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Mango." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is CIR 1401, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date, Mar. 2002. Reviewed July 2013. Web.23 june 2014.
Fig. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16 Nelson, Scot C. Anthracnose, Colletotrichum gloesporioides. N. d. hawaiiplantdisease.net. Web. 22 June 2014.
Fig. 17,18,19,20,21 Nelson, Scot C. Powdery Mildew, Oidium mangiferae. N. d. hawaiiplantdisease.net. Web. 22 June 2014.
Fig. 25 Nelson, Scot C. Grey Leaf Spot, Pestalotia mangiferae. N. d.hawaiiplantdisease.net. Web. 22 June 2014.
Fig. 22 Shen, Yuan-Min. Algal spots on the mango leaf. 2013. Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 25 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 23,24 Calderon, Cesar. Green Alga Cephaleuros virescens Kunze. 2013. USDA, APHIS, PPQ. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 25 Mar. 2016.
Fig. 26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34 Nelson, Scot C. Mango Decline. N. d. hawaiiplantdisease.net. Web. 22 June 2014.
Fig. 35 Nelson, Scot C. Irrigation damage. N. d. hawaiiplantdisease.net. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.
Published 24 June 2014 LR. Updated Aug. 11 2014, 25 Mar. 2016 LR