|Strawberry - Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier|
Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier
Guttation on a strawberry leaf
Fragaria × ananassa 'Chandler' at the San Diego County Fair, California, USA.
Fragaria x ananassa flowers
Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Unripe fruit Makawao, Maui, Hawaii
Fragaria x ananassa habit
Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Fruit Makawao, Maui, Hawaii
Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Fruit Makawao, Maui, Hawaii
'Pineberry' is a white strawberry cultivar with a pineapple-like flavor. It was first sold commercially in the United States in 2012.
Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Crop and worker in field. Omaopio, Maui, Hawaii
Durant la fête de la fraise de Carpentras, France
Banner of the Brotherhood of the Strawberry of Carpentras (Vaucluse, France)
Strawberries on display at Chelsea Flower Show, London, England 2009
Bottles recycling bin in Ramat Hasharon, Israel
Strawberry pie, 8 m (26 ft) in diameter, Beaulieu sur Dordogne, France, during the annual strawberry festival
Strawberry Field in the hamlet Dernekamp, Kirchspiel, Dülmen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
A diorama created from beeswax by Dr. Henry Brainerd Wright at the Louisiana State Exhibit Museum in Shreveport, Louisiana, depicts strawberry harvesting
Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier
English: garden strawberry, strawberry; French: fraisier, fraisier ananas; German: Ananaserdbeere, Erdbeere, Gartenerdbeere, Kulturerdbeere; Portuguese: morangueiro; Spanish: fresa, fresa ananás; Japanese Rōmaji: oranda-ichigo; transcribed Korean: ttalgi 4
Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne; F. × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia (Nutt. ex Howell) Staudt; F. bathonica Poit. & Turpin; F. bonariensis Juss. ex Pers.,p.p.38630; F. calyculata (Duchesne) Duchesne ex Steud.; F. caroliniana Poit. & Turpin; F. chiloensis auct.; F. chiloensis var. ananassa Duchesne ex Weston; F. chiloensis var. ananassa (Duchesne ex Rozier) Ser.; F. chiloensis var. calyculata (Duchesne) Ser.; F. chiloensis var. carolinensis Duchesne ex Weston; F. chiloensis var. tincta Duchesne ex Sm.; F. × cultorum Thorsrud & Reisaeter; F. cuneifolia Nutt. ex Howell; F. × grandiflora Ehrh.; F. hybrida Duchesne; F. latiuscula Greene; F. × magna auct.; F. suchiana Poit. & Turpin; F. tincta Duchesne; F. vesca var. ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Aiton; Potentilla × ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Mabb. 3
Apple, Malus domestica; blackberry, Rubus spp.; capulin, Prunus salicifolia; chikasaw plum, P. angustifolia; loquat, Eriobotrya japonica; mayhaw, Crataegus spp.' peach, P. persica and pear, Pyrus spp. 2
France (accidental cross between North American and South American large strawberries)
USDA hardiness zones
Planted as a fruitful border; grown under fruit trees for a lush fruiting bed; grown in
Rarely higher than 18 in. (45 cm) 2
Herbacious; creeping; stolons that form new plantlets at the tip 5
Perennial (usually grown as an annual in Florida)
Short woody stems
Trifoliate; dark green; paler and haired on the undersides; on long petioles emerging from the crowns 7
Yellow centers; 5 petals white or occasionally pink, borne underneath the foliage canopy 7
Bright red at maturity; cone-shaped or flattened cone-shaped; numerous small, hard, brown seeds scattered on the outside surface; fleshy; prominent, green calyx at the stem end
February and March are peak season in Florida 10
Direct sunlight for at least 8 hours a day 1
Soil should be well drained and slightly acidic 1
Need weekly watering for fruit production
Strawberries do not tolerate flooding 12
Flowers/fruit can be damaged by air temperatures below 32 °F (0 °C) 1
Plant spacing (2-row beds) 1
12-16 in. (30.5-40.6 cm) between plants
12-14 in. (30.5-35.6 cm) between rows
48-60 in. (121.5-152.4 cm) between beds
Shallow root system
Invasive potential *
Thrips and mites are often present but ignored until they become troublesome 2
Some are severely allergic to the fruit 2
Growing Strawberries in the Florida Home Garden from the University of Florida pdf
Strawberry, Fragaria spp. from Fruitipedia, Encyclopedia of the Edible Fruits of the World
Strawberry from Just Fruits and Exotics nursery
The cultivated strawberry, which originated in France, is the result of an accidental cross between Fragaria virginiana, from eastern North America, and F. chiloensis, from the Pacific coast of South America. The United States is the world's largest producer. In Florida, production is concentrated in Hillsborough and Manatee counties. Plant city in Hillsborough county host the Winter Strawberry Festival each year in March.
For 160 years European strawberry breeding followed a different course from that in the United States. In both North America and Europe, the large-fruited strawberry was based on the same two American species combined by Europeans beginning about 1750. But from then on, the Americans have put in larger doses of the wild North American strawberry, whereas the Europeans held to a higher percentage of Chilean. 14
The strawberry is a popular spring crop and represents a valuable addition to any Florida garden. The plant requires little maintenance apart from periodic irrigation. It consumes little space within the garden. It also has the advantage of bearing fruit within a few months after planting. The strawberry will grow in all regions of the state. However, it is regarded as an annual crop and is replanted at the start of each growing season. 2
Biological Life Cycle of the Strawberry
Temperatures between 50 and 80°F (10 and 27°C) and day lengths 14 hours or less are required for the development of flowers and fruit on most strawberry varieties. 1
Flowers are white, about 1″ across, with 25-30 yellow stamens and 50-500 pistils on a raised, yellow, conical receptacle. Borne on a dichasial cyme, the center-most terminal flower opens first and is largest, producing the largest fruit. 8
The strawberry is an accessory fruit, since the edible portion is non-ovarian in origin (it is largely swollen receptacle tissue). The true fruits which contain the seed of the strawberry are achenes, which are similar to tiny sunflower seeds. The achenes are the numerous, tiny, ellipsoid specks that cover the fruit surface. Fruit mature rapidly; ripening occurs in 20 to 50 days after pollination. 8
First berries should be ready to pick 90-110 days after planting 10
Currently, three varieties are suggested for the Florida home garden: 'Camarosa', 'Sweet Charlie', and 'Festival'. All three varieties produce attractive, flavorful berries suitable for eating fresh or for freezing. 'Camarosa' has been the most productive variety in North Florida, while 'Festival' and 'Sweet Charlie' produce more fruit during the early part of the season and have been the most productive varieties in Central Florida. 'Radiance' is a newer variety that produces more fruits earlier and throughout the season in Central Florida. 1
University of Florida Strawberry Cultivars specific to West Central Florida pdf
WinterstarTM ('FL 05-107') Strawberry from the University of Florida pdf
Florida 'Radiance' Strawberry from the University of Florida pdf
SensationTM Brand ‘Florida127’ Strawberry from the University of Florida pdf
'Sweet Charlie' Strawberry from the University of Florida pdf (archived)
'Florida Beauty' Strawberry from the University of Florida pdf
A strawberry fruit is ready to harvest when three quarters of its entire surface area is red. The fruit starts to deteriorate soon after it has become totally red, so it is best to harvest fruit regularly, generally, every two to four days. 1
Most cultivars are self-fruitful and therefore do not need cross pollination for fruit set. However, bee activity is beneficial in transferring pollen to stigmas in an individual flower. 8
A fully developed strawberry needs about 21 visits from bees. A single strawberry, can have 400-500 seeds (or small nuts) sitting on the surface of one berry. The higher the number of fully developed seeds, the bigger, tastier and even shaped a strawberry gets. 15
Interestingly, strawberries do not normally reproduce by seeds. Strawberry plants send out what are called runners, which grows on the ground and sends roots into the soil. The roots then produce new plants that are often used to start new strawberry plots. 9
Strawberry is commercially propagated by runners. Generally one plant produces 7-10 runners but under proper management, it can go up to 15 runners/plant. It can also be propagated through crowns (3-5 plants/crown), but division of crowns of older plants is too tedious and expensive for cultivars producing runner plants readily. 11
Single-crown (stem) strawberry plants are planted in Florida during the fall, from late September to early November. Flowering and fruit production generally begins in November and continues into April or May. Fruit production over this period is not constant, but occurs in two or three cycles, and can be interrupted by freezing weather. Because the highest quality fruit are produced on relatively young plants with not more than four or five branch crowns, plants are usually removed at the end of the fruiting season, and new plants are planted the following fall. 1
Most strawberry plants grown commercially in Florida are planted in double rows on soil that has been mounded into raised beds. This method also is recommended for home gardens. Raised beds (as compared to flat beds) create a well-drained soil environment in which roots have sufficient oxygen for survival during periods of heavy rain. 1
Setting fresh dug, bare-root strawberry plants with a hand tool from the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service pdf
Planting Design, Training, Pruning from fruitcrops.com
North Florida Sept. 15 - Oct. 15
Central Florida Sept. 25 - Oct. 25
South Florida Oct. 1 - Dec. 1 6
The most practical method for the Florida gardener to protect flowers from freeze damage may be to cover plants with sheets, blankets or frost cloth. Cover during the afternoon preceding an expected freeze. The covering should be anchored down on all sides to prevent wind from blowing it off the plants. A small “tunnel” can also be constructed using PVC hoops covered with clear plastic sheeting to create a greenhouse effect. The sides can be raised or lowered depending on air temperatures. 1
Two pounds (~ 900 g) of 10-5-10 (or equivalent) garden fertilizer with micronutrients (including boron) per 10 feet of row should be incorporated into the bed before planting. About one-half of the nitrogen in the fertilizer should be in a slow release form, such as a sulfur- or resin-coated material. Incorporate one-fourth of the fertilizer evenly across the top of the bed with a steel rake. Apply the remainder of the fertilizer in a narrow band approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) deep along the middle of the bed (above the drip line or soaker hose, if they have been placed in the bed). 1
Fertilization of Strawberries in Florida from the University of Florida pdf
Nitrogen Fertilization of Strawberry Cultivars: Is Preplant Starter Fertilizer Needed? from the University of Florida pdf
A Summary of N and K Research with Strawberry in Florida from the University of Florida pdf 22 pages
After the plants are established on the bed (i.e., when leafy bareroot transplants no longer have a tendency to wilt during the hottest part of the day), drip tape or soaker hoses can be used to keep the beds moist. Watering at a low pressure (e.g., 10 psi) for 1/2 to 1 hour should thoroughly moisten the bed. Beds can also be watered with overhead sprinklers. Early in the season when the plants are small, one watering per week may be sufficient. Later in the season, when the plants are larger and weather is warmer, two or three waterings per week will be needed. 1
Water Movement in Strawberry Beds from the University of Florida pdf
Beneficial Insects of Strawberry by K. Krewenka, University of California, Davis pdf
The fruit is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, juice, pies, ice creams, milkshakes, and chocolates. 13
Fig. 16. Soupe de fraises Gariguettes au vinaigre balsamique blanc et ses tuiles aux amandes de Provence
Fig. 17. Chopped strawberry macaron parisien with lemon curd filing
Fig. 18. Strawberry fortune cookies
Fig. 19. Strawberry-Ginger beer
Fig. 20. Christmas market 2015 Erzsébet Square. Mid. Strawberry wines. Budapest District V., Hungary
Fig. 21. Cool, fresh-squeezed strawberry juice, Damascus, Syria
Fig. 22. Strawberry pizza
Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are also widely used in many products like lip gloss, candy, hand sanitizers, perfume, and many others 13
Methods of agriculture
Fig. 23. Strawberry agriculture of Shizuoka prefecture, Japan
Fig. 24. Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Cultivated farm at Pulehu, Maui, Hawaii
Fig. 25. Выращивание клубники ТОО "Тепличные Технологии Казахстана", Greenhouse technology of Kazakhstan
Fig. 26. A field using the plasticulture method
Fig. 27. Strawberry hydroponic farm, Bradenton, Fl.
Strawberry folklore 9
In provincial France, strawberries were regarded as the highest-quality aphrodisiac. Traditionally, newlyweds were served a soup of thinned sour cream, strawberries, borage (a European herb whose flavor is reminiscent of cucumber), and powdered sugar.
The second wife of Henry the VIII, Queen Anne Boelyn (1507-36), had a strawberry-shaped birthmark on her neck. Unfortunately, some claimed this fact proved she was a witch.
The strawberry is recognized as representing absolute perfection in the Victorian language of flowers.
Medieval stonemasons carved strawberry designs on altars and around the tops of pillars in churches and cathedrals, symbolizing perfection and righteousness. During the same time period, strawberries were served at important state occasions and festivals to ensure peace and prosperity.
Sacred to the both Goddess of Love and the Virgin Mary, strawberries boast a long, dramatic history.
Have you ever eaten a double strawberry? Legend holds that if you break it in half and share it with a member of the opposite sex, then you will soon fall in love with each other.
The first known American species of strawberries was cultivated about 1835. The berries seem to be strewn among the leaves of the plant, and they were first called strewberries in the late 18th century. 9
Later, the name was changed to strawberry—possibly from the practice of English children threading the berries on pieces of straw for sale or from the 19th century practice of laying straw around the strawberry plants to protect them from bad weather. Other stories noted that farmers would bring the strawberries to market on beds of straw to protect them during traveling. 9
Some growers paint stones red and scatter these throught the patch early in the season, theorizing that birds will soon come to regard all red objects as stones. 2
Fragaria X ananassa, Garden Strawberry by J. Courteau, Enclyclopedia of Life
Fragaria: A Genus with Deep Historical Roots and Ripe for Evolutionary and Ecological Insights from the American Journal of Botany pdf 14 pages
DNA, Technology, and Florida Strawberries from the University of Florida pdf
Home Garden Strawberries from the University of Georgia Extension pdf
Weed Management in Strawberry from the University of Florida pdf
Fruit and Soil Quality of Organic and Conventional Strawberry from the Public Library of Science pdf 14 pages
Organic Farming Improves Pollination Success in Strawberries from the Public Library of
The Southern Region small fruit consortium - Crops - Strawberry ext link
Strawberry Botanical Art
List of Growers and Vendors
1 Craig K. Chandler, et al. "Growing Strawberries in the Florida Home Garden." This document is HS1154, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Original publication date, December 2008, Revised December 2014, Reviewed August 2017. edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs403. Accessed 30 Oct. 2017.
2 Boning, Charles R. Florida's Best Fruiting Plants- Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Pineapple Press, Inc. Sarasota, Florida, 2006. pp 202-203.
3 "Fragaria × ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier synonyms." The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; www.theplantlist.org/. Accessed 1st January 2017.
4 "Taxon: Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier, Common names." npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=244. Accessed 30 Oct. 2017.
5 Courteau, Jacqueline. "Fragaria X ananassa, Garden Strawberry." Encyclopedia of Life, 2012-07-09 18:21:09 UTC. (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0). eol.org/pages/245515/details. Accessed 30 Oct. 2017.
6 Whitaker, Vance M. et al. "Chapter 16. Strawberry Production." Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2017–2018 edition, Twenty-first edition of Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. edis.ifas.ufl.edu/cv292. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
7 "Fragaria x ananassa." en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Horticulture/Fragaria_x_ananassa. Accessed 6 Nov. 2017.
8 Rieger, Mark. "Strawberry, Fragaria X ananassa." Mark's Fruit Crops, www.fruit-crops.com/strawberry-fragaria-x-ananassa/. Accessed 6 Nov. 2017.
9 "Strawberry Facts and Production Costs." UF/ISAS Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu/strawberry-facts-and-production-costs/. Accessed 9 Nov. 2017.
10 "Strawberries." UF/IFAS Gardening Solutions, gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/plants/edibles/fruits/strawberries.html. Accessed 9 Nov. 2017.
11 Parmar, Chiranjit. "Strawberry Fragaria spp." Encyclopedia of the Edible Fruits of the World, fruitipedia.com/strawberry%20Fragraia%20spp..htm. Accessed 11 Nov. 2017.
12 Cowley Gilbert, Brandy. "Strawberry." justfruitsandexotics.com/JFE/product-category/berry-plants/strawberries/. Accessed 11 Nov. 2017.
13 "Strawberry." Wikipedia, the free Enclyclopedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strawberry. Accessed 11 Nov. 2017.
14 Darrow, George M. "The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology." Lee in Darrow, George McMillan Darrow Papers, 1915-1960s. USDA Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Digitized Selection (PDF/12.19MB), specialcollections.nal.usda.gov/guide-collections/george-mcmillan-darrow-papers. Accessed 12 Nov. 2017.
15 "Spotlight: Seven bee-friendly fruits and veggies." Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, www.fao.org/zhc/detail-events/en/c/329095/. Accessed 13 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 1 Alpsdake. Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier. 19 May 2013. (CC BY-SA 3.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fragaria_×_ananassa.JPG. Accessed 31 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 2 Kubina, Jeff. Strawberry. 2 June 2007, (CC BY-SA 2.0), www.flickr.com/photos/95118988@N00/528670134. Accessed1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 3 Schnobby. Guttation on a strawberry leaf. 1 October 2011, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Guttation_on_a_strawberry_leaf.jpg. Accessed 31 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 4 Stickpen. Fragaria × ananassa 'Chandler' at the San Diego County Fair, California, USA. Identified by exhibitor's sign. 16 June 2010, Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fragariaxananassa-chandler.jpg. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 5 User Rasbak. Strawberry flower. 9 Oct. 2005. Transferred from nl.wikipedia to Commons by Maksim. GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aardbei_bloembodem_vlezig.jpg. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 6 Osterloh, Alfred. Fragaria x ananassa. 31 May 2012, (CC BY-NC-SA-3.0), en.hortipedia.com/wiki/File:Fragaria_plantation_detail_photo_file_708KB.jpg. Accessed 9 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 7 Starr, Forest and Kim. Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Fruit, Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. July 04, 2008, (CC BY 4.0), starrenvironmental.com/images/image/?q=24897242916. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 8 Osterloh, Alfred. Fragaria x ananassa. 6 June 2010, (CC BY-NC-SA-3.0), en.hortipedia.com/wiki/File:Fragaria_x_ananassa_flowers_photo_file_578KB.jpg. Accessed 9 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 9 Starr, Forest and Kim. Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Fruit, Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. July 04, 2008, (CC BY 4.0), starrenvironmental.com/images/image/?q=24897198166. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 10 Starr, Forest and Kim. Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Fruit Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. July 04, 2008, (CC BY 4.0), starrenvironmental.com/images/image/?q=24830195771. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 11 Emmbean. Pineberries. 1 April 2010, (CC BY 3.0), en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineberry#/media/File:Pineberries.jpg. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 12 Cowley Gilbert, Brandy. 'Sweet Charlie' strawberry. www.justfruitsandexotics.com/JFE/product/sweet-charlie-strawberry/. Accessed 11 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 13 Cowley Gilbert, Brandy. 'Camarosa' strawberry. www.justfruitsandexotics.comJFE/product/camarosa-strawberry-plant/. Accessed 11 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 14 Starr, Forest and Kim. Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Crop and worker in field. Omaopio, Maui, Hawaii. May 18, 2009, (CC BY 4.0), starrenvironmental.com/images/image/?q=24328636823. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 15 Casamance, Marianne. Durant la fête de la fraise de Carpentras. 9 Apr. 2016, (CC BY-SA 4.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carpentras_-_Fête_de_la_fraise_2016_10.JPG. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 16 ADT 04 - Soupe de Gariguettes au vinaigre balsamique blanc et ses tuiles aux amandes de Provence. 22 Aug. 2015, (CC BY 2.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Soupe_de_fraises_gariguettes_de_Nîmes.jpg. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 17 zaimoku_woodpile. Chopped strawberry macaron parisien with lemon curd filing. 14 May 2011, (CC BY 2.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stacked_strawberry_macaron_parisien_with_lemon_curd_filing.jpg. Accessed 9 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 18 Fancy Fortune Cookies. Strawberry fortune cookies. 22 Nov. 2005, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:StrawberryFortuneCookies.jpg/. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 19 Anagoria. Strawberry-Ginger beer. May 2015, GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2015-05-07_Erdbeer-_Ingwerbier_anagoria.JPG. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 20 Globetrotter19. Christmas market 2015 Erzsébet Square. Mid. Strawberry wines. - Budapest District V., Hungary. 29 Nov. 2015, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Christmas_market_2015_Erzsébet_Square._Epermester_strawberry_wines._-_Budapest.JPG. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 21 Gordon, James. Cool, fresh-squeezed strawberry juice, Damascus, Syria. 26 April 2008, (CC BY 2.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cool,_fresh-squeezed_strawberry_juice,_Damascus,_Syria.jpg. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 22 Trice, Keith. Strawberry pizza. 3 June 2012, (CC BY 2.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Strawberry_pizza_(5800558970).jpg. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 23 Photolog. 日本語: 石垣いちご. Strawberry agriculture of Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. 15 Apr. 2012, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ishigaki_ichigo.jpg. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 24 Starr, Forest and Kim. Fragaria x ananassa (Cultivated strawberry). Cultivated farm at Pulehu, Maui, Hawaii. Mar. 13, 2007, (CC BY 4.0), starrenvironmental.com/images/image/?q=24766985082. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 25 Alex.urg. Выращивание клубники ТОО "Тепличные Технологии Казахстана", Greenhouse Technologies of Kazakhstan. 10 May 2015, (CC BY-SA 4.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Выращивание_клубники_ТОО_"Тепличные_Технологии_
Казахстана"_2.jpg. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 26 Bn100. A field using the plasticulture method. 1 March 2009, Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plasticulture.jpg. Accessed 11 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 27 Robitaille, Liette. "Local strawberry hydroponic farm." 2008. www.growables.org. JPG File.
Fig. 28 Pagnier, Véronique. Banner of the Brotherhood of the Strawberry of Carpentras (Vaucluse, France). 4 Sept. 2010. Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bannière_Confrérie_de_la_Fraise_-_Carpentras.JPG. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 29 Darorcilmir. Strawberries on display at Chelsea Flower Show, 2009. 19 June 2008, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Strawberries_chelsea.JPG. Accessed 11 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 30 דוד שי. Bottles recycling bin in Ramat Hasharon. 17 Nov. 2012, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bottles_recycling_bin.JPG. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 31 Le grand Cricri. Strawberry pie, 8 m in diameter, Beaulieu sur Dordogne, France, during the annual strawberry festival. May 13, 2012, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tarte_aux_fraises_de_8_m_de_diamètre_de_Beaulieu_sur_Dordogne,_France_3.JPG. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 32 Rabich, Dietmar. Strawberry Field in the hamlet Dernekamp, Kirchspiel, Dülmen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. 4 June 2015, (CC BY-SA 4.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dülmen,_Kirchspiel,_Erdbeerfeld_--_2015_--_6492-6.jpg. Accessed 2 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 33 Hathorn, Billy. A diorama created from beeswax by Dr. Henry Brainerd Wright at the Louisiana State Exhibit Museum in Shreveport, Louisiana, depicts strawberry harvesting. 15 May 2010, (CC BY-SA 3.0), commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:
Strawberry_harvest_at_Louisiana_State_Exhibit_Museum_in_Shreveport_IMG_3360.JPG. Accessed 11 Nov. 2017.
* UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
Published 13 Nov. 2017 LR