Mulberry - Morus spp.
Morus alba L.
Fig. 1 
Mulberry fruit, Morus alba L.

White mulberry leaf
Fig. 2
White mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf

Morus alba underside of leaf
Fig. 3
Underside of the Morus alba L. leaf

Scans of various leaf shapes of Morus alba
Fig. 4
Scans of various leaf shapes of Morus alba L.

Morus alba leaves
Fig. 5
Morus alba L. leaves new growth

Morus rubra
Fig. 6
Red mulberry (Morus rubra) leaves

Morus alba flowers in India
Fig. 13
Morus alba L. flowers in India

Morus alba. Parque Ana Tutor, Madrid
Fig. 19
Morus alba L.
Parque Ana Tutor, Madrid

Morus alba branch
Fig. 20
Morus alba L. branch

Red Mulberry at Rattlesnake Springs Picnic Area, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Eddy Co., NM, 100517
Fig. 21
Red Mulberry at Rattlesnake Springs Picnic Area, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Eddy Co., NM.

Mulberry fruit and leaves at Fulham Palace, UK
Fig. 22
White mulberry fruit and leaves at Fulham Palace, UK

Morus nigra, fruit taken in the village Theologos on Thasos (Greece)
Fig. 23
Morus nigra, fruit taken in the village Theologos on Thasos (Greece)

White Mulberry tree at Fulham Palace. The white mulberry is the one used to feed silkworms
Fig. 28
White mulberry tree at Fulham Palace. The white mulberry is the one used to feed silkworms.

Silkworm. Mulberry tree
Fig. 29
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) on white mulberry tree

Morus alba - Tehran
Fig. 30
Morus alba L. 'Chaparral'. Weeping habit, non-fruiting. Tehran

Red mulberry Morus rubra L. tree
Fig. 31
Red mulberry Morus rubra L. tree

Morus nigra L. - black mulberry
Fig. 32
Morus nigra L. black mulberry
United States, TX, Tarrant Co., Inspiration Point Marion Samson Park.

White mulberry trunk
Fig. 33
Morus alba L. bark

Morus alba, white mulberry wood. Muséum de Toulouse, Toulouse, France. - MHNT
Fig. 34
Morus alba L., white mulberry wood. Muséum de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Red mulberry (Morus rubra) L. bark
Fig. 35
Red mulberry (Morus rubra) L. bark

Morus nigra L. - black mulberry
Fig. 36
Morus nigra L. black mulberry

U.S. Geological Survey - Digital representation of Atlas of United States Trees
Fig. 37
Range map of Morus rubra

Morus alba EDD Map0s
Fig. 38
Morus alba L. reported as invasive in the Northeastern US


Species
White Mulberry (Morus alba L.), Black Mulberry (M. nigra L.), American Mulberry, Red Mulberry (M. rubra L.). Hybrid forms exist between Morus alba and M. rubra. 1
The genus Morus is the Latin word for mulberry 8
The species name, rubra, comes from the Latin word for red 8
Common names
Morus alba: English: white mulberry, silkworm mulberry Russian mulberry; Spanish: moral blanco 5
M. rubra:
English: red mulberry; French: mûrier rouge; German: roter Maulbeerbaum; Spanish: moral rojo; Swedish: rött mullbär 3
M. nigra: English: black mulberry; French:  mûrier noir; German: schwarzer Maulbeerbaum; Spanish: moral negro, morera negra 10
Pronunciation
Morus alba: MOE-russ AL-buh
M. rubra: MOE-russ RUBE-ruh
Synonyms
Morus alba: M. alba var. alba; M. alba var. atropurpurea (Roxb.) Bureau; M. alba var. bungeana Bureau; M. alba var. laevigata Wall. ex Bureau; M. alba var. latifolia (Poir.) Bureau; M. alba var. mongolica Bureau; M. alba var. multicaulis (Perr.) Loudon (in review); M. alba var. nigriformis Bureau; M. alba var. serrata (Roxb.) Bureau; M. alba var. stylosa Bureau; M. alba var. tatarica (L.) Loudon; M. alba var. tatarica (L.) 9
M. rubra
: M. canadensis Poiret; M. murrayana Saar & Galla; M. reticulata Rafinesque; M. riparia Rafinesque; M. rubra Linnaeus, var. tomentosa (Rafinesque) Bureau 10
M. rubra var. japonica Makino 9
Relatives

Korean Mulberry (Morus australis), Himalayan Mulberry (M. laevigata) 1
Distant Affinity
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), Jackfruit (A. heterophyllus), Fig (Ficus spp.), Che (Cudrania tricuspidata), African Breadfruit (Treculia african) 1
Family
Moraceae
Origin
The white mulberry is native to eastern and central China; the red mulberry is native to eastern US (south Florida) 2 and the black mulberry is native to western Asia 1
USDA hardiness zones
Morus alba: 4-8 5
M. rubra: 5b-10b 7
M. nigra: 5-9 5
Uses
Fruit eaten out of hand; used as shade tree; attracts wildlife; has been used by native people of the eastern United States for centuries 2
Height
Morus alba: 30-50 ft (9-12 m) 5
M. rubra: 40 ft (12 m) 5
M. nigra: 30 ft (9 m ) 5
Spread
Morus alba: 30-50 ft (9-12 m) 5
M. rubra: 50 ft (12 m) 5
M. nigra: 35 ft (10.7 m) 5
Crown
Rounded, dense canopy 2
Plant habit
Morus rubra: spreading with a high canopy 5
M. nigra: spreading with a low canopy 5
Growth rate
Fast; 36 in. (91.5 cm) per year 4
Morus rubra: grows wild in dry fields, pinelands and moist woods, where they can form a thicket of rapid-growing trees 2
Longevity
Morus alba: 50-150 years 5
M. rubra: does not usually have a long life, rarely more than seventy-five years 13, as it will be damaged by winds and succumb to disease in less than 20 years 2
M. nigra: have been known to bear fruit for three hundred years 13
Trunk/bark/branches
Morus alba: bark light green; fissured 5
M. rubra: bark is brown and splits into scaly plates 8
M. nigra: bark dark brown, light green or orange; furrowed or scaly 5
Pruning requirement
Train the branches to a sturdy framework and little pruning is required
Leaves
Morus alba: deciduous; can be characterized more by its thin, glossy, light green leaves than by the color of its fruit 13
M. rubra: deciduous; simple; alternately arranged; between 2-8 in. (5-20 cm) 8
M. nigra: deciduous; rough; often unlobed 13
Flowers
All species have either male or female flowers (dioecious); trees may be sold as male or
female 5
Morus alba: inconspicuous; flowers in spring 5
Morus rubra: blooms in April and May 2
Fruit
Morus alba: prolific; black, purple or white; mutiple fruit drupetlets; 0.5-1.5 in. ( 1-4 cm) 5
M. rubra: red to dark purple; ripen in late spring; 1-1.5 in. (2.5-4 cm); aggregate of drupelets or are made up of several tiny, one-seeded fruits 8
M. nigra: prolific, black or Red multiple fruit drupelets; 1-1.5 in. (2.5-4 cm) 5
Season
June to September depending on the cultivar; Morus nigra from mid-summer to autumn
Light requirement
Ful sun to partial shade 5
Soil tolerances
Tolerant of poor soil; appears to thrive in the infertile sandy soil found across much of Florida 6
PH preference
Acidic to highly alkaline 5
Drought tolerance
Although somewhat drought-resistant, mulberries need to be watered in dry seasons 1
Aerosol salt tolerance
Good in mild zone 5
Soil salt tolerance
Moderate on coast 5
Cold tolerance
Mulberry is a temperate fruit tree and is not damaged by the lowest temperatures that occur in Florida 6
Plant spacing
At least 15 ft (5 m) apart 1
Roots
Potential damage is rated as high 5
Invasive potential *
Not a problem species under the UF Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas but, the Morus alba is considered invasive in the Northeastern area by Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States (Fig. 38)
Pest resistance
The Caribbean fruit fly sometimes infests the fruit in south Florida 6
Known hazard
Fruit leaves an indelible stain 6
Male trees are extremely allergenic and should be avoided, while female trees cause few or no allergies. The pollen from members of the Morus genus can cause allergies ranging from hay fever to asthma 8
Morus negra: sap and unripe fruit is toxic 5



Reading Material

The Red Mulberry: A Bird Attracting Plant for South Florida from Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Article in the Miami Herald
Morus rubra, Red Mulberry by the Universityof Florida pdf
Mulberry Tree from Just Fruits and Exotics nursery
Mulberry Express by Green Deane eatheweeds.com



Origin

The white mulberry is native to eastern and central China. It became naturalized in Europe centuries ago. The tree was introduced into America for silkworm culture in early colonial times and naturalized and hybridized with the native red mulberry. The red or American mulberry is native to eastern United States from Massachusetts to Kansas and down to the Gulf coast. The black mulberry is native to western Asia and has been grown for its fruits in Europe since before Roman times. 1

Natural History red mulberry
Red mulberry is a member of the mulberry family (Moraceae). It is fire-intolerant, but may colonize post-fire sites when sufficient moisture is available. It is native to eastern North America, but while it is a common species in the United States, it is listed as an endangered species in Canada. Additionally, red mulberry is threatened by extensive hybridization due to the introduction of the invasive white mulberry (Morus alba), which originates from Asia. 12

Description

The mulberry is an underrated fruit with great potential as a dooryard crop. The tree produces profigious quantities of delicious, berrylike fruit. It is cold hardy, drought tolerant, fast growing and requires little care. It establishes quickly and bears at a young age. However, the fruiting season is short, the fruit leaves an indelible stain, and the Caribbean fruit fly is an occasional pest in southern parts of the peninsula. 6

Leaves
Red mulberry: its leaves are simple, alternately arranged, and grow between 2 to 8 inches long. Mulberry leaves are generally heart-shaped, but they can have anywhere from 0 to 3 lobes. The leaves on young trees and new branches are particularly variable. Leaf margins are saw toothed but are soft to the touch. The topsides of the leaves are dull green with a rough texture, while the undersides are pubescent or hairy, with a fuzzy, soft feel. 8

Characters that tend to differentiate red mulberry (rubra) versus white mulberry (alba) from Julian Campbell, bluegrasswoodland.com

White mulberry leaves White mulberry leaves Red mulberry (Morus rubra)
Fig. 7
Morus alba L.
Fig. 8
M. alba L.
Fig. 9 
Morus rubra L.
Morus alba L. 'Chapparal' Red mulberry (Morus rubra) Morus nigra L.
Fig. 10
M. alba L. 'Chapparal'
Fig. 11
M. rubra L.
Fig. 12
M. nigra L.

Flowers

Mulberry trees are either dioecious or monoecious, and sometimes a tree even will change from one sex to another. Hight temperatures, strong light, and long days favor maleness in mulberries, with their opposites, as well as high humidity, bringing out female flowers. 15
Red mulberry (Morus rubra) can have both male and female trees as well as male and female flowers on the same tree. Only female trees or those with both male and female blooms will produce fruit. 2
The greenish to white inconspicuous flowers appear in clusters in the spring, with male and female flowers occurring either on the same tree or separate trees. 8

Morus alba flowers Morus alba flowers Red mulberry (Morus rubra) flowers
Fig. 14
M. alba L.
Fig. 15
M. alba L.
Fig. 16
M. rubra L.
Morus rubra Morus nigra L.
Fig. 17
M. rubra L.
Fig. 18
M. nigra L.

Fruit
The collective fruit, which may be red, green, white, purple, or black in color, is composed of the swollen ovaries of numerous tiny flowers. In better cultivars, the flavor is sweet, but with a hint of tartness and acidity. The fruit stem penetrated the length of the fruit. 6
The Morus alba fruits are generally very sweet but often laack tartness that give flavor éclat. Fruit size is variable, with the largest-fruited cultivars -'Pakistan', for example - bearing berries over three inches long. 13
The fruits of the M. rubra are usually deep red, almost black, and have a flavor that, in the best clones, almost equals that of the delectable black mulberry. 13
Fruits of Morus nigra are large and juicy, with a congenial blend of sweetness and tartness tha makes it the best-flavored species of mulberry. It leafs out almost two months after the other two species, and fruits ripen lates, from midsummer into autumn. 13

Morus alba L. fruit Mulberry hybrid Morus alba x morus rubra Morus rubra
Fig. 24
Morus alba L.
Fig. 25
M. alba x M. rubra L.
Fig. 26
M. rubra L.
Morus nigra L. fruit
Fig. 27
M. nigra L.

Varieties
A number of excellent mulberry cultivars are available. Those varieties well suited to Florida, include 'Tice', 'Pakistan' (Morus alba), 'Tehama', 'King White Pakistan', 'Shangri-La' (Morus alba), 'Bachuus Noir', 'Red Gelato'. 'Black Persian' (M. negra). 'Illinois Everbearing' (M. alba x M. rubra) and 'White Dove'. 6

Mulberry Varieties for Florida from Just Fruits and Exotics nursery

Harvesting
Fruit should be allowed to thoroughly ripen on the tree for best quality and flavor. Harvest by shaking the branches over a clean sheet in May. 11
Separate ripe fruits from the leaves, twigs, insects, and unripe fruits that also fall by dumping the wholw mess into a pail of water. Everything except the ribe berries will float and can be decanted. 13

Pollination
Pollination is not usually a problem, because mulberries are wind-pollinated, and some plants - the cultivars 'Illinois Everbearing' and 'Hicks', for example - will set fruit without any pollination whatsoever. 13

Propagation
Mulberries can be grown from seed, although the plants can take 10 years or more to bear. Seed should be sown as soon as extracted from the fruit, although white mulberry seeds germinate better after stratifying one to three months before planting. 1
Sprig budding is the most common method for grafting mulberries. A T-cut is made in the rootstock and a smooth, sloping cut is made on the lower end of the scion. The scion is then inserted into the T and wrapped and sealed. Other types of grafts are also usually successful, although there may be incompatibility between white and black mulberries. Hardwood, softwood and root cuttings also are suitable methods for propagating mulberries. Softwood cuttings of white mulberries root easily when taken in midsummer and treated with rooting hormone. Red mulberries are less easily rooted. Black mulberries are also somewhat difficult to propagate since they tend to bleed a lot. 1
Red mulberry can be propagated from stem cuttings, root sprouts, air-layering or by budding. 2

Pruning
No special pruning techniques are needed after the branches have been trained to a sturdy framework, except to remove dead or overcrowded wood. A mulberry tree can be kept to a tidy form by developing a set of main branches, and then pruning laterals to 6 leaves in July in order to develop spurs near the main branches. It is not advisable to prune the trees heavily since the plant is inclined to bleed at the cuts. Cuts of more than two inches in diameter generally do not heal and should be avoided at all cost. The bleeding will be less severe if the tree is pruned while it is dormant. 1

Fertilizing
A granular fertilizer like 8-3-9 or similar formulation should be applied in June and August. The granular fertilizer should be spread lightly below the drip line. A foliar minor element spray and chelated iron drench can be done in June and August to improve the growth of the tree. Iron chelate is expensive, but under South Florida conditions it will make a large difference in the performance of your tree. 2

Irrigation
The first year is a critical time for the establishment of a new mulberry. Water thoroughly twice a week on light soils and once a week on clay soils. Soak the entire root system deeply – this usually takes 40-50 minutes. Mulberry trees should receive at least 1 inch of water each week for best growth and fruit production. Water regularly, especially during dry periods. Fruit may drop prematurely if insufficiently irrigated during dry spells. 11

Pests/diseases
Mulberries are generally free of pests and diseases, although cankers and dieback can occur. In some areas "popcorn disease" is an occasional problem, in which fruits swell to resemble popped corn. M. alba/M. rubra hybrids are particularly prone to this condition. The
disease carries on from one season to the next, so collecting and burning infected fruits help control it. 1

Food Uses
Fruits of red mulberry are used to make preserves, jams, pies, and other sweets. 8
The berry is used in pies, tarts, wines and cordials. Cooked, such as in muffins, they are much like blueberries in flavor. 14

Medicinal Uses **
Red mulberry: Many tribes used different parts of mulberry to treat various sicknesses. For instance, the Alabama and Creek Indians treated urinary tract issues using an extract made from mulberry root. The Rappahannock took the sap and rubbed it over skin to treat ringworm, and the Cherokee steeped the bark and ingested the liquid to loosen stool and get rid of intestinal worms. The Meskwaki used the root bark as a cure for a wide range of ills. 8

Other Uses
There are records of the Timucua Indians of northeast Florida using the leaves, twigs and berries to make dyes, and Seminoles using the branches to make bows. Other Indians more to the north consumed the dried fruits during the winter. They would mash, dry and store mulberry fruit, then add them to water to make warm sauces that they sometimes mixed into cornbread. The Cherokee made sweet dumplings by mixing cornmeal and sugar with the fruit. In the past, the fruits were also valued for fattening hogs and chickens but this practice is rarely used today. 2
The wood from mulberry trees has also been used in the construction of furniture, boats and tubs and even as fence posts because the heartwood is relatively durable. Other uses of the wood include farm implements, furniture, interior finishing and caskets. 2

General

The word "mulberry" has an interesting etymological evolution. The Old High German word for berry, beri, was combined with the Latin word morus to make the word múlbere. This word (múlbere) then morphed into the German name Maulbeer, which then transformed into the Dutch word moerbezie, and eventually the English word mulberry. 8
Thai silk is produced from the cocoons of domesticated silkworms. The Samia ricini produces matte Eri silk and the Bombyx mori, the glossy mulberry silk. 13

One thing about using mulberries is that your hands turn purple. I tried everything to remove the stain. I remembered I kept an article from 1977 from "Your Garden" magazine and there it was - the answer. Use the juice of green mulberries to remove stains on hands etc. I
collected some green mulberries, rubbed the juice into my hands and instantly the stains disappeared. 16


Invasive status
Weed 0f the Week: White Mulberry, Morus alba from the US Forest Service pdf

Morus rubra L. Species Distribution Map
Fig. 39
Morus rubra L. Florida species distribution map


Further Reading

Making Use of the Mulberry from the Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia
Feasting on the Kampong Mulberry Tropical Fruit News magazine of the Miami Rare Fruit Council International
Morus alba Fruitless Cultivars: White Mulberry from the University of Florida pdf
A Mess of Muddled Mulberries from Julian Campbell of Bluegrasswoodland.com pdf 64 pages
Mulberry from the California Rare Fruit Growers Inc.
Mulberry spp. Botanical Art


List of Growers and Vendors


Bibliography

1 "Mulberry." California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. 1996. crfg.org.pubs/ff/mulberry.html. Accessed 16 Oct. 2017.
2 Ledesma, Noris. "The Red Mulberry: A Bird Attracting Plant for South Florida." Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Article published in the Miami Herald, 7 May 2012. fairchildgarden.org/News-Pressroom-Media-Center/Articles/the-red-mulberry-a-bird-attracting-plant-for-south-floridaMiami Herald. Accessed 17 Oct. 2017.
3 Wunderlin, R. P., B. F. Hansen, A. R. Franck, and F. B. Essig. 2017. Atlas of Florida Plants. S. M. Landry and K. N. Campbell (application development), USF Water Institute.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa. florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/Results.aspx. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
4 Campbell, Julian. "Muddled Mulberries in Kentucky." Notes on Species, 2014bluegrasswoodland.com/Notes_on_Species.html. Accessed 17 Oct 2017.
5 SelecTree. "Morus rubra Tree Record." SelecTree, Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute., Morus alba Tree Record, 1995-2017. selectree.calpoly.edu/tree-detail/morus-rubra. Accessed 17 Oct 2017.
6 Boning, Charles R. Florida's Best Fruiting Plants- Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Pineapple Press, Inc. Sarasota, Florida, 2006. pp 132-133.
7 Campbell, Julian. "Characters that tend to differentiate red mulberry (rubra) versus white mulberry (alba). Taxonamic and Ecological Notes, Morus: Muddled Mulberriesbluegrasswoodland.com/Notes_on_Species.html. Accessed 21 Oct. 2017.
8 Andreu, Michael G. et al. "Morus rubra, Red Mulberry." School of Forest Resources and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension. FOR 264, Original publication date June 2010, Reviewed April 2016. edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fr326. Accessed 22 Oct. 2017.
9 The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet. www.theplantlist.org. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
10 Wunderlin, R. P., B. F. Hansen, A. R. Franck, and F. B. Essig. "Morus rubra L." 2017. Atlas of Florida Plants. [S. M. Landry and K. N. Campbell (application development), USF Water Institute.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa. florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/Plant.aspx?id=3420. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
11 Cowley Gilbert, Brandy. "Mulberry Tree." www.justfruitsandexotics.com/JFE/product-category/fruit-trees/mulberry/#lightbox/0/. Accessed 25 Oct. 2017.
12 "Red mulberry." University of Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation. www.sfrc.ufl.edu/extension/4h/trees/Red_mulberry/. Accessed 26 Oct. 2017.
13 "Thai silk." en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_silk. Accessed 27 Oct. 2017.
14 Deane, Green. "Mulberry Express." Eat the Weeds and Other Things Too website. www.eattheweeds.com/mulberry-glucose-controlling-hallucinogen-2/. Accessed 27 Oct. 2017.
15 Reich, Lee. Uncommon Fruits for Every Garden. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, London. 2004. pp 87-96.
16 Gray, Christine. "Making Use of the Mulberry" Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia. March 1995. Accessed 27 Oct. 2017. rfcarchives.org.au/Next/Fruits/Mulberry/Mulberry3-95.htm. Accessed 27 Oct. 2017.

Photographs

Fig. 1 Smith, Jenny. DMOR 13 -  Morus alba L. Kokuso No. 20 - Korea, South. npgsweb. ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/imagedisplay.aspx?lnk=223827. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 2,7,14,33 Ritter, M, W. Mark and J. Reimer. Morus alba fruit. N.d. SelecTree, Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute., Morus alba
Tree Record.  UC Berkeley Botanic Garden - Berkeley, CA and San Luis Obispo, CA., 1995-2017. selectree.calpoly.edu/tree-detail/
morus-alba. Accessed 21 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 3,8,15 Kwan. Morus alba. 2013. www.natureloveyou.sg/Morus%20alba/Main.html. Accessed 21 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 4 Jaknouse. Scans of various leaf shapes of Morus alba. 2009. (CC BY 3.0.). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morus_alba-leaves.jpg. Accessed 21 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 5 FASTILY. A close-up of young, budding leaves on a Morus alba (White Mulberry) in the Spring. 2009. (CC BY-SA 3.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morusalbaleaves3800ppx.JPG#mediaviewer/File:Morusalbaleaves3800ppx.JPG. Accessed 23 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 6 Wargo, Betty. Morus rubra. USF Herbarium Slide Collection. florida.plantatlas.usf.edu//photo.aspx?ID=1371. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 9 Evans, Chris. Red mulberry (Morus rubra). Uploaded June 22, 2005, Updated September 23, 2010. The University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org. (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=1380329. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 10,20 Smith, Jenny. DMOR 57 -  Morus alba L. 'Chapparal' leaves, Oregon, United States. npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/accessiondetail.aspx?1629209. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 11 Sydnor, T. Davis. Red mulberry (Morus rubra) foliage. Uploaded February 4, 2016, Updated July 26, 2017. The University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org. (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5543132. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 12,18 Smith, Jenny. DMOR 41 - Morus nigra L. Shah Tut, California, United States. npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/imagedisplay.aspx?lnk=222367. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 13 Suyash Dwivedi. Morus alba flowers in India. 2017. (CC BY-SA 4.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morus_alba_flowers_in_India.jpg. Accessed 23 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 16 Wallace, Rebekah D.. Red mulberry (Morus rubra) flowers. Uploaded April 4, 2011, Updated April 9, 2011. The University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org. (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5434814. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 17 Schulten, Julia. Morus rubra. USF Herbarium Slide Collection. florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/photo.aspx?ID=1371. Accessed 1 Nov. 2017.
Fig. 18 Smith, Jenny. DMOR 8 - Morus alba L. branch, AR-239 - Uzbekistan. npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/imagedisplay.aspx?lnk=223866. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 19 Fernández García L., Luis. Fdez. Morus alba. Parque Ana Tutor, Madrid. 2005. (CC BY-SA 2.1 ES). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morus-alba.jpg. Accessed 23 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 21 Oldenettel, Jerry. CAA04516a. Red Mulberry at Rattlesnake Springs Picnic Area, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Eddy Co., NM, 100517.
Morus rubra. 2010. (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). www.flickr.com/photos/jroldenettel/4641982320/in/photolist-85cnBW
-a25A49-a25zR7-63Ay98-azYQ91-8u9Xdp-6xMJLK-8H9CfF-asS6UX-9oJhtk-asUJb3-7Ncp4J-2rHkRS-2rHryd-od8UxF-51SBpq-tCkRze-
of2kXv-byVUyL-ouYBLz-w39Ugi-oveqmd-a35mSh-wWEnQ9-owj8pc-odpf7v-ouByXK-51SBb1-9oMmGu-88XG4i-u5GxwR-eZ12J6-fHyFEy-
wYYjik-rn3WEh-ouCaMS-51NnWn-eZdrHS-7dy77K-8a8YXE-eZ25gH-oeT2bE-2F55BT-51rtKL-odtxei-xtuizM-xtp3BR-yo1CWU-nCLGWF-ouCav9. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 22 Hawgood, David. Mulberry fruit and leaves at Fulham Palace - geograph.org.uk. 2008. Geograph project collection. ( CC BY-SA 2.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mulberry_fruit_and_leaves_at_Fulham_Palace_-_geograph.org.uk_-_835697.jpg.  Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 23 Haplochromis. Morus nigra, fruit taken in the village Theologos on Thasos (Greece). 2007. (CC BY-SA 3.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morus_nigra_fruits.JPG. Accessed 27 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 24 Smith, Jenny. DMOR 24 - Morus alba L. Thompson, California US. npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/imagedisplay.aspx?lnk=222367. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 25 Smith, Jenny. DMOR 17 - Morus alba x M. rubra, Illinois Everbearing, Illinois, United States. npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/accessiondetail.aspx?1629209. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 26 Ghosh, Asit K. Morus rubra. USF Herbarium Slide Collection. florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/Photo.aspx?id=1371. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 27 Weller, Rebecca. Morus nigra L. black mulberry. treesforme.com. United States, TX, Tarrant Co., Inspiration Point Marion Samson Park. April 7, 2012. USDA, NRCS. 2017. The PLANTS Database. plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=MONI#. Accessed 29 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 28 Hawgood, David. White Mulberry tree at Fulham Palace. The white mulberry is the one used to feed silkworms - geograph.org.uk. 2008. Geograph project collection. (CC BY-SA 2.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White_Mulberry_tree_at_Fulham_Palace_-_geograph.org.uk_-_835695.jpg. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 29 Gorkaazk. Silkworm. Mulberry tree. 2010. (CC BY 3.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Silkworm_mulberry_tree_zetarra_marugatze_arbolean1.JPG. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 30 Alborzagros. Morus alba. Tehran. 2011. (CC BY-SA 4.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morus_alba_-_Tehran.JPG. Accessed 23 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 31 Webb, Richard. Red mulberry (Morus rubra) tree. Uploaded April 9, 2007, Updated July 10, 2007. The University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=1480302. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 32 Weller, Rebecca. Morus nigra L. black mulberry. treesforme.com. United States, TX, Tarrant Co., Inspiration Point Marion Samson Park. April 7, 2012. USDA, NRCS. 2017. The PLANTS Database. plants.usda.gov/java/largeImage?imageID=moni_001_ahp.jpg. Accessed 29 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 34 Culos, Roger. Morus alba, white mulberry wood. Muséum de Toulouse, Toulouse, France. - MHNT. 2012. (CC BY-SA 3.0). commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morus_alba_MHNT.BOT.2006.0.1270.JPG. Accessed 23 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 35 Stephens, David. Red mulberry (Morus rubra) bark. Uploaded April 6, 2012, Updated April 20, 2012, The University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5469692. Accessed 24 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 36 Weller, Rebecca. Morus nigra L. black mulberry. treesforme.com. United States, TX, Tarrant Co., Inspiration Point Marion Samson Park. April 7, 2012. USDA, NRCS. 2017. The PLANTS Database. plants.usda.gov/java/largeImage?imageID=moni_003_avp.jpg. Accessed 29 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 37 Little, Jr., Elbert L. Range map of Morus rubra. U.S. Geological Survey - Digital representation of Atlas of United States Trees. 31 December 1998. United States Geological Survey, an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. Public Domain. esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/little/. Accessed 26 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 38 Swearingen, J., C. Bargeron. White mulberry, Morus alba L. 2016. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. www.invasiveplantatlas.org/subject.html?sub=6050. Accessed 27 Oct. 2017.
Fig. 39 Wunderlin, R. P., B. F. Hansen, A. R. Franck, and F. B. Essig. 2017. Atlas of Florida Plants. florida.plantatlas.usf.edu//Plant.aspx?id=3420. Accessed 26 Oct. 2017.

UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
** Information provided is not intended to be used as a guide for treatment of medical conditions.

Published 1 Nov. 2017 LR
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