|Bacuripari - Garcinia macrophylla Mart.|
Close-up of female flower
Close-up of male flowers
Garcinia Macrophylla male inflorescence
Cross section showing one of the seeds
Garcinia Macrophylla leaves
Garcinia Macrophylla tree
Garcinia Macrophylla Trunk
Garcinia Macrophylla fruit
Garcinia macrophylla Mart.
Bacuripari, Bacuripari-verdadeiro, bacuri, Bacuri-da-varzea in Brazil 3; Charichuela in Peru. 2
Garcinia macrophylla (Mart.) Planch. & Triana 3
Madrono, Garcinia madruno; Bakupari, G. brasiliensis; Bacupari, G. gardneriana; Lemon Drop Mangosteen, G. intermedia; Imbe, G. livinstonei; Button Mangosteen, G. prainiana; Gamboge, G. xanthochymus
Clusiaceae (alt. Guttiferae)
Amazonian lowlands, Surinam and Brazil to northern Peru 2
26-40 ft (8-12 m) very slow grower
Very slow grower
Evergreen; simple; stiff; leathery
White and slightly scented; 3 male and female flowers are home in small axillary clusters on separate trees 2
Smooth or rough; rounded/conical; thick yellow ring; containing yellow latex 2
May to August/October to November
Light to moderate shade 2
27-28 °F (-2.78º--2.22º C)
Invasive potential *
Bacuripari from Julia Morton's book Fruit of Warm Climates
There are over 240 Garcinia species, mostly from southeast Asia. Garcinia species from the Americas were once classified as Rheedia, but now all are considered Garcinia.
Sorting Garcinia Names from the Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database, University of Melbourne, Australia ext. link
Wherever bacurí, bacuripari or other Rheedia sp. are grown, the flavor is considered excellent. Although not superior to mangosteen in terms of flavor or edible flesh percentage, these other species have better adaptation to varied climatic and edaphic conditions, allowing for their production in many regions. The latex in both of these fruit can be a major obstacle to commercialization, because those unfamiliar with the consumption of these fruit are likely to ingest it, leading to an unpleasant taste experience. Silva (1991) reports that bacurí fruit can be stored a few days after harvest to reduce the amount of latex in the fruit. There has been little selection for superior clones among either bacurí or bacuripari, although there is considerable variation present among seedling trees. 1
The bacuripari is native to the Amazonian lowlands, Surinam and Brazil to northern Peru where it grows as an understory tree. 1
The bacuripari is outstanding because it grows and produces a significant crop in shaded conditions (Campbell 1983). The trees are also tolerant of full sun and wind exposure, making them more adaptable to varied climates than the mangosteen. There is considerable variation in fruit quality among bacuripari from different regions of South America, and there may be different species involved. 1
The fruit is not much esteemed but widely eaten and sold in native markets. The bacuripari was introduced into Florida in 1962 and planted at the Agricultural Research and Education Center in Homestead, at Fairchild Tropical Garden and in several private gardens. One tree fruited in 1970, another in 1972, and the latter has continued to bear. 2
Leaves are stiff, leathery, lanceolate-oblong or broad-lanceolate leaves, 12 to 18 in (30-45 cm) long and 3 to 7 in (8-18 cm) wide, pointed at both ends, with numerous lateral, nearly horizontal veins. New foliage is maroon. 2
The 4-petalled, male and female flowers are home in small axillary clusters on separate trees, the male on delicate stalks to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) long and having numerous stamens, the female on thick, short stalks and sometimes having a few stamens with sterile anthers. In Florida, flowers appear in April and May and a second time in August and September. 2
Fruit are variable in shape, averaging 4 to 5 cm in diameter and 5 to 6 cm in length. The fruit have a thick, hard outer wall containing a bitter latex, as in bacurí. Inside the hard shell is a white, creamy flesh surrounding 3 to 4 large seeds. The flesh is scanty in comparison to mangosteen or bacurí. 1
Fruits are in season from May to August and again in October and November. Some 15-to 20-year-old trees have produced 100 to 200 fruits when there have been no adverse weather conditions. 2
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required. 2
Trees are propagated by seed and may require 7 to 10 years to come into production. 1 Seeds have remained viable for 2 to 3 weeks but require several weeks to germinate. 2
Fruit eaten raw or made into jams
List of Growers and Vendors
1 Campbell, R.J. 1996. "South American fruits deserving further attention." hort.purdue.edu/newcrop. J. Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops, p. 431-439. ASHS Press, Arlington, VA. Web. 14 March 2014.
2 Morton, J. "Bakupari." hort.purdue.edu. Fruits of warm climates. p. 309–310. 1987. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.
3 Lorenzi, Harri, Bacher, Luis, Lacerda, Marco and Sartori, Sergio. Brazillian Fruits & Cultivated Exotics (for consuming in natura). Brazil. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA. 2006. Print.
Fig.1,2,5,10 Broson, Eric, I likE plants!Garcinia macrophylla. 2009. flickr.com. Under (CC BY 2.0). Web. 29 Jan. 2015.
Fig. 3 Zavadil, VojtÄ›ch. Close-up of male flowers. N.d. tropical.theferns.info. Under (CC-BY-SA-3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0). Web. 14 Mar. 2017.
Fig. 4,6,7,8,9 Kwan. Garcinia macrophylla, Clusiaceae. 2010. natureloveyou.sg. Web. 12 March 2014.
* UF/IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas
Published 12 Mar. 2014 LR. Last update 14 Mar. 2017 LR